The whole aim of practical politics is to keep the populace alarmed (and hence clamorous to be led to safety) by menacing it with an endless series of hobgoblins, all of them imaginary.
- H. L. Mencken
In 1969, the world’s most famous environmental scientist (Paul Ehrlich of Stanford) warned we would all die by 1989 in a cloud of blue steam.
“The trouble with almost all environmental problems,” says Paul R. Ehrlich, the population biologist, “is that by the time’ we have enough evidence to convince people, you’re dead.”
“We must realize that unless we are extremely lucky, everybody will disappear in a cloud of blue steam in 20 years”
- New York Times August 10, 1969, Page 53
FOE OF POLLUTION SEES LACK OF TIME The New York Times
A year later he said we would run out of water by 1974, and out of food by 1980.
06 Oct 1970, Page 3 – Redlands Daily Facts at Newspapers.com
Two years later, the world’s leading climate experts warned President Nixon about a new ice age “in about a century.”
THE ROLE OF NOAA’S CLIMATE PREDICTION CENTER IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF CLIMATE SERVICES
We didn’t run out of water by 1974 as Paul Ehrlich predicted, so he switched over to the global cooling scam.
31 Jul 1974, Page 7 – Pampa Daily News at Newspapers.com
In 1974, Steven Schneider took the scientific consensus of global cooling to the White House.
climatic researchers are becoming alarmed that in the next 10 to 100 years humanity will be unable to feed itself
So writes Stephen Schneider, a young climatologist at the National Center for Atmospheric Research in Boulder, Colo., reflecting the consensus of the climatological community in his new book, “The Genesis Strategy.” His warning, that present world food reserves are an insufficient hedge against future famines, has been heard among the scientific community for years—for example, it was a conclusion of a 1975 National Academy of Sciences report. But Schneider has decided to explain the entire problem, as responsibly and accurately as he can, to the general public, and thus has put together a useful and important book.
It is a matter, as Schneider explains, of statistics. The last 15,000 years have been unusually warm when compared to global temperatures for the last 150,000. The last 200 years have been unusually warm when compared to the last 1,000. But there is considerable evidence that this warm period is passing and that temperatures on the whole will get colder. For example, in the last 100 years mid‐latitude air temperatures peaked at an all‐time warm point in the 1940’s and‐have been cooling ever since.
In 1974 Schneider and Bryson tried to explain to a White House policy‐making group why conditions are likely to worsen. One of the most depressing anecdotes in the book is Schneider’s description of the deaf ear their warnings received.
- New York Times July 18, 1976
The Genesis Strategy – The New York Times
Three years later President Carter warned that we would run out of oil before 2010.
The hard truth, as the Carter Administration sees it, is that the world’s oil supplies cannot much longer sustain the world’s increasing oil consumption.
if consumption then continued at the same level, the world’s oil would disappear in the first decade of the 21st century. Oil consumption therefore has to be reduced here and throughout the world, and new energy sources have to be developed.
- New York Times March 4, 1977
Carter’s Oil Problem – The New York Times
Two years later, experts determined that nuclear reactors were going to melt through the Earth all the way to China, and that Pennsylvania would be made uninhabitable.
21 Mar 1979, 4 – The Times Leader at Newspapers.com
That didn’t happen, so a year later “frightened” experts decided that acid rain was going to make Pennsylvania uninhabitable, and all they needed was $100 million dollars to fix it.
“Acid rain …… It’s a lot worse than we thought”
07 Feb 1980, 2 – The Morning Call at Newspapers.com
What stands out for me is the $100 million. Scientists now expect $billions for their scams.
We knew he was a nut back then, and mostly ignored ’em.
Never trust scientists with German names
no matter wether it is Schneider(taylor),Mann or Hansen(a kind of guilde of sea
and especially never trust one with the name Ehrlich(=hoenest)
in an orwellian world.
Though all his predictions turned out to be utter bullshit(=he was obviously the blueprint and rolemodel for modern AGW climate scientists and they emulate his “success” 1:1)
he is still considered as one of the great guys(maybe because of his proposal
to sterilize humans(there is a little hitler in inside every socialist) by force to keep world population below 2 billion as he suggested in his book “eco science” which was co authored by(it’s a very exclusiv club of always the same usual suspecty) Obamas climate tzar john “ice age will kill is all(1970)/AGW will kill us all 2010″holdren who obviously suffers from the same dementia as Schneider)
Stephen Schneider died in 2010, while in a first class seat travelling overseas for a climate conference.
a former ice age then AGW gonna kill us all
scientist can never ever die on an airplane
because airplane produce so much evil hitleresque co2 :)
He would have never done that-he would have simply participated using a video/skype conference as a conference is not a team match but just a data and opinion exchange-no physical appearance necessary.
And he for sure would have never used the first class
as climate popes are humble ascetic people
as Al Gore who bought a Villa at the beach of montecito/california + huge swimming pool in front of the ocean
for just 11 million dollars((he must have forgotten for a second about his sea level rise and bought a house that could drown any second and become worthless by coiincidence while being drunk,i guess :))
but i’m pretty sure griff can explain us all those impossibilities.
He’s one of the few climate scientists to have given up air travel.
R. Shearer says:
May 28, 2018 at 2:14 am
He’s one of the few climate scientists to have given up air travel.
Ha ha ha ha!
First chuckle of the day (-:
We lived next door to Stephen and Cheryl Schneider in Boulder CO in the mid 1980s. He had just gone through his “Global cooling is bringing the next Ice Age” phase to his “Global warming is going to kill us all” phase and was, shall we say, a bit erratic. His wife dumped him a few years later for reasons I can certainly understand. I hope she and the kids got a lucrative settlement.
His famous “Double ethical bind” was that he was more driven by fame and grant funding than he was by fidelity to principles of the scientific method and honesty in his activities.
I have no doubt Mikey Mann tosses and turns at night for the same reasons. When the sclerotic federal court of Washington DC finally gets around to making a decision, I am certain Mark Steyn will prevail and earn the appropriate multi-million-dollar judgement that he is certainly due.
Karma is real, but a bitch in the end for liars and frauds.
So here a man hustled, he read the tea leaves, stuck his licked finger into the wind to see which way federal grants would blow, twisted himself into a pretzel and destroyed his scientific reputation just to feed his starving family but instead of honoring him for his sacrifice his wife dumped him.
The AGW alarmists are still using his playbook:
The late Stephen Schneider, who authored The Genesis Strategy, a 1976 book warning that global cooling risks posed a threat to humanity, later changed that view 180 degrees, serving as a lead author for important parts of three sequential IPCC reports. In a quotation published in Discover, he said: “On the one hand, as scientists we are ethically bound to the scientific method, on the other hand, we are not just scientists, but human beings as well. And like most people, we’d like to see the world a better place, which in this context translates into our working to reduce the risk of potentially disastrous climatic change. To do that, we need to get some broad-based support, to capture the public’s imagination. That, of course, entails getting loads of media coverage. So we have to offer up scary scenarios, make simplified, dramatic statements, and make little mention of the doubts we might have. Each of us has to decide what the right balance is between being effective and being honest.”
“It’s a lot worse than we thought.”
That one has been recycled a lot.
You could place an original of the Kukla et al letter in Nick Stokes hands and he would still deny that there was some kind of scientific consensus about global cooling in the 1970’s.
Hell you could pile copies of every paper, article, and video made on the subject of global cooling and the threat of an ice age back in the 70’s and he would deny it was an issue of concern then.
Heh, but then again, do we know how old Nick Stokes is? If he is anywhere close to my age, he *lived* through the 70s. If I can remember that bit of media huckstering … ? :p
Robert Austin: That was my thought too. Guess he’s just a denialist.
Back when the first three articles above were published I was too busy being a typical teenage boy to pay attention to stuff like that. The second half of the decade I still were doing the things boys do but also learning a little about such stuff at IU and thus became more aware.
Despite the denial of the alarmists, the threat of global cooling was well publicized. It’s just that it was not politically accepted like the claim of “climate change” is today by a significant number of people in academia and politics.
The loony greens now make simplistic excuses such as “We’ve changed things since then”, meaning that we’re causing warming now, instead of cooling. But of course they never show an ounce of proof as to how that’s the case.
To live in the mind of a loony Leftard must be a truly terrifying experience. Everything’s bad for you, especially things that were considered healthy 20 years ago, which appears to be the timescale for all trends to reverse and terrify them all over again.
They have such short memories, if not a staunch resolve to selectively forget or simply lie.
C-17 unloads it’s can of whoop ass.
“Army paratroopers participate in the 82nd Airborne Division Airborne Review at Fort Bragg, N.C., May 24, 2018, during All American Week, an annual celebration of the division. Army Photo by Pfc. Anthony Todd”
They are almost certainly jumping on Sicily DZ at Ft. Bragg, NC. It’s a huge sandbox 3 miles long and 1/2 mile wide. You have to work at getting hurt landing on that DZ.
The 82nd “All American” Div. was formed in 1917 and fought with distinction in WW I. It was unique at the time because it was formed from conscripts from all the 48 states. Other divisions of the time were formed from Regiments from various states or regions. And thus the “All American” name.
The Division served with distinction in WW I having key roles in the St. Mihiel and Meuse-Argonne offensives. Alvin York served in the 82nd. It suffered 995 killed and 7,082 wounded in the 4 1/2 months it served in combat.
For most of the period between the wars the division was an administrative unit of the organized reserve. Then in Feb. 1942 it was reactivated and later than year designated as the first of the US Airborne Divisions. There was a huge turnover as those not fit to be paratroopers were transferred out and those that wanted to try and become paratroopers arrived to go through the tough paratrooper training. Then later glider units were formed to fill out the division. There were basically three types of elite units in the US Army during WW II. They were the Airborne units, Ranger units, and the joint US Canadian 1st Special Service Force, know as “The Devils Brigade”. Common characteristics of all of the elite units were special emphasis on small unit tactics, individual initiative and leadership, more extensive hand to hand combat training, weapons training, cross training to do jobs other than that the soldier was primarily trained in, and much tougher physical training that those in regular Infantry units received.
During WW II the 82nd, or portions of it, conducted airborne assaults in Sicily and Salerno, Italy and other units were used to reinforce ground forces in Italy.
The whole division was involved in the airborne assault in support of the amphibious forces at Normandy and again in Holland during the Market Garden offensive. The Division was key to stopping the route and holding the northern shoulder of the Bulge to help stop Hilters last major offensive of the war. Then the Division helped reduce the Ruhr pocket. During WW II the division suffered 1,619 Killed, 6,560 wounded, and 279 missing. The bones of most of missing lie in Normandy France somewhere where a lot of troopers drowned in rivers and flooded areas where they were dropped early in the morning of June 6th, 1944.
Since WWII the Division has served in about every conflict except the Korean war that the US has been involved in.
It would be well worth your time if your in the vicinity of Fayetteville, NC to visit the Airborne and Special Ops museum.
Forgot the photo
Got my large U.S. flag flying in the front. Glad to see several neighbors doing the same. I honestly stood there looking at it in late 2016, wondering if I would be able to fly the thing any more. The concept of government being accountable to the people (and to god) requires constant vigilance and is very fragile…
By flying the US flag I’m telegraphing respect for veterans, plus the ideals of freedom & justice for all and (limited) government by & for the people. The 50 stars indicate we have a “federal system” with 50 State governments restraining the central government. The 13 stripes are the original 13 Colonies which threw off a sitting European monarch who viewed Americans as subjects and prevented them from manufacturing their own goods. The U.S. is far from perfect, but these are good ideals and nothing to apologize for…
Yep, my 6′ x 10′ flag is on my 30′ pole above a 3′ x 5′ Gadsden “Don’t Tread On Me” flag.
ЯΞ√ΩLUT↑☼N, I would suggest that you read. The US Code, Title 36
I’m allowing occupation; something the Chinese and many others have no choice to do.
Fortunately my 2nd Amendment right supersedes any “occupation”.
Took down the big flag today and put up the 3′ x 5′. What’s left of Alberto is already causing the wind to pick up. Though my pole can handle at least 80 mph sustained winds with the large flag even a 40 mph sustained wind is tough on the flag itself. So the storm flag is up now.
Like most of the other US units that would take part in Overlord (Normandy invasion) the various unit of the 82nd were scattered in towns and villages in SE England. They played darts, drank beer at the local pubs. They participated in sponsored dances at which the local girls would attend. And because billeting for the massive forces being assembled was inadequate quite a number of them were billeted in the homes of British families. The troops would save their rations or even pilfer for the military stores to bring what were then considered luxuries to the families they lived with and for the kids. Sugar, Chocolate, canned goods, especially meats, and such helped make the severe rationing more tolerable for many British families. There were problems and conflicts for sure, but over all considering that most of the US soldiers hadn’t even been out of the state where they were born before going into the Army, let alone a different country, it went amazingly well. The British knew what they were there for. And so after months of living with them most of the English felt them a part of their communities or families.
After the weeks in combat in Normandy the surviving Airborne troops that did not need hospitalization returned in England to the same camps where they had been billeted. Lester Pollom, a trooper in the 82nd relates this story about what he experienced during his units return:
“We debarked from the train at Nottingham Station and we were surprised to find thousands of towns-people there to welcome us. There were very few of us. I noticed a middle-aged woman walking back and forth, frantically searching the thin ranks of troopers. She became more agitated as she searched. She finally stopped in front of me and asked, ‘When will the rest be in?’
I answered her by saying, ‘Madam, this is all there are.’ She raised her eyes skyward and crossed herself, and in a plaintive voice cried, ‘Oh, God in heaven!’ She turned away sobbing”
148 men of B Company, 508th Parachute Infantry Regiment jumped into Normandy. When they returned to Wollaton Park there were 47.
Of all the US, Canadian, and British airborne units that jumped or rode gliders into Normandy about 20% became casualties on June 6th. And the attrition went on from there in the subsequent days of heavy combat with the British airborne units suffering higher casualties because Monty kept them in the fight for about 5 weeks longer than the American units before sending back the England. The only airborne personnel in both Armies that got home earlier than the rest were the wounded and the glider pilots which were returned ASAP.
Thanks for the story.
It can be found along with an accurate and readable general history about the airborne operations for Overlord in:
‘If Chaos Reigns: The Near-Disaster and Ultimate Triumph of the Allied Airborne Forces on D-Day, June 6, 1944’
Here it is , 2018.
We made it, just in time.
Thank goodness we had luck on our side!!!
This is a powerful post, and I wish something like this could be in all high school textbooks. Biology textbooks are STILL quoting that hater from Stanford like he’s some kind of prophet.
School curricula are are designed to have the truth concealed, if not entirely abrogated.
Hey wait! Paul Im-not-even-going-to-try-to-spell-his-name-right (friggin’ Germans just make it difficult so we untermenschen remain inferior) is still ALIVE! These many years, he, along with the rest of us was supposed to be dead instead of having, what, maybe $2m equity on his house in Palo Alto and what ever else he’s accumulated during these apocalyptic times. What a dick!
That we should even mention his name is a waste of breath unless passing gas through an articulate anus.
And not just dead, long dead. I should be so dead my son was never even born. I AM SO TRIGGERED AT EVEN THE NAME OF THAT EXECRABLE CALCUTTA HATING DICK WEED.
Hey, if you hate everybody doesn’t that make you a misogynist, a homophobe, probably even a dog hater? Paul Air-lick, dog hater.
Forbes has an article on rising CO2 levels reducing nutritional value of food and causing plants to increase toxins. Its never-ending fear porn.
Interesting that they use added CO2 (@ ambient ~800-1000 ppm) in winter greenhouse production of food crops then. Seems it saves on heating costs by increasing plant tolerance to cold and speeds production time.
so – global cooling was ASLO a scam?
The problem I have with the whole ‘warming is a scam’ thing is, if it really is cooling or cooling was also a scam and if scientists are all frauds only in it for the grants – why on earth did they have to switch horses to warming when they could have ridden a possibly actually happening global cooling wave all the way to the bank?
It cooled, then , THANKFULLY, it warmed back up to currently about the same temperature as around 1940.
But even now its still very much at the lower end of interglacial temperatures.
The cause was NATURAL.
It the people trying to blame it on humans, that such huge amounts of money for their own agendas, and try to adjust society to their beliefs , that bring the word SCAM to the fore.
People just like you, griff.
Stop interrupting Ms Griff’s emotional outbursts with appeals to facts and reason.
It’s really quite simple. The end of a cooling cycle and the beginning of this last warm cycle didn’t support it. Mama Gaia and Papa Sol caused the globalists to switch horses.
Their quotes over the last three decades speak for themselves. How many have admitted that this is not about warming, but about control? How many have said we must ride the warming trend for as long as possible?
Here are a few quotes from the High Priests of the trillion dollar Climate Change Industry…
“We need to get some broad based support,
to capture the public’s imagination…
So we have to offer up scary scenarios,
make simplified, dramatic statements
and make little mention of any doubts…
Each of us has to decide what the right balance
is between being effective and being honest.”
– Prof. Stephen Schneider,
Stanford Professor of Climatology, lead author of many IPCC reports
“We’ve got to ride this global warming issue.
Even if the theory of global warming is wrong,
we will be doing the right thing in terms of
economic and environmental policy.”
– Timothy Wirth, President of the UN Foundation
“No matter if the science of global warming is all phony…
climate change provides the greatest opportunity to
bring about justice and equality in the world.”
– Christine Stewart, former Canadian Minister of the Environment
“The data doesn’t matter. We’re not basing our recommendations
on the data. We’re basing them on the climate models</b?.”
– Prof. Chris Folland, Hadley Centre for Climate Prediction and Research
“The models are convenient fictions
that provide something very useful.”
– Dr David Frame, climate modeler, Oxford University
“I believe it is appropriate to have an ‘over-representation’ of the facts
on how dangerous it is, as a predicate for opening up the audience.”
– Al Gore,
Climate Change activist
“It doesn’t matter what is true,
it only matters what people believe is true.”
– Paul Watson, co-founder of Greenpeace
<i."The only way to get our society to truly change is to
frighten people with the possibility of a catastrophe.”
– emeritus professor Daniel Botkin
“Effective execution of Agenda 21 will require a profound
reorientation of all human society, unlike anything the world
has ever experienced a major shift in the priorities of both
governments and individuals and an unprecedented
redeployment of human and financial resources. This shift
will demand that a concern for the environmental consequences
of every human action be integrated into individual and
collective decision-making at every level.”
– UN Agenda 21
And the “Climate Chairman” Ottmar Edenhofer, of course:
Climate policy has almost nothing to do anymore with environmental protection, says the German economist and IPCC official Ottmar Edenhofer. The next world climate summit in Cancun is actually an economy summit during which the distribution of the world’s resources will be negotiated.
Neue Zürcher Zeitung, 14 Nov 2010
I just noticed that anon already cited Nature’s “Climate Chairman” below.
It cannot be repeated enough, IMHO
I still hold out the hope of disillusionment for people like Griff.
Gator, mind providing original sources for those quite telling quotes?
Bing. Google is not your friend.
Thanks for the additional quotes. But I think it is all for naught, it appears Griff is not allowed to read anything that is not from or sourced from official government sources.
At least Griff asked the question.
That tells me he/she is not also on the dole (which I have wondered), but truly, incredibly (incredulously) ignorant of the government role in all of this.
I hold out hope for those who will ask questions to things that don’t make sense on the surface.
I believe many like Griff are silently questioning, wondering to themselves, “what IF the warming doesn’t continue (or, if the hiatus turns to cooling), what then?”
For these staunch holdouts (true believers not directly connected to the government teets of AGW), their disillusionment will be much greater than what you and I experienced. IMHO
CONTENT WARNING / TRIGGER WARNING:
I know you are not allowed to read anything I linked to below, (or anything on Wikileaks for that matter) without the worry that you are breaking the law and the FBI will come after you. In light of that, you might want to head down to your local library with a dark pair of sunglasses and read the rest of my response below. Don’t read any further until you have done so.
If scientists are going to ride an issue to the bank, the government needs to be behind it (ie they are the payers and the scientists are the payees.) So, what is the political issue? It is the redistribution of wealth.
In Their Own Words: Climate Alarmists Debunk Their ‘Science’
Former U.S. Senator Timothy Wirth (D-CO), then representing the Clinton-Gore administration as U.S undersecretary of state for global issues, addressing the same Rio Climate Summit audience, agreed: “We have got to ride the global warming issue. Even if the theory of global warming is wrong, we will be doing the right thing in terms of economic policy and environmental policy.” (Wirth now heads the U.N. Foundation which lobbies for hundreds of billions of U.S. taxpayer dollars to help underdeveloped countries fight climate change.)
In 1988, former Canadian Minister of the Environment, told editors and reporters of the Calgary Herald: “No matter if the science of global warming is all phony…climate change [provides] the greatest opportunity to bring about justice and equality in the world.”
Climate policy has almost nothing to do anymore with environmental protection, says the German economist and IPCC official Ottmar Edenhofer. The next world climate summit in Cancun is actually an economy summit during which the distribution of the world’s resources will be negotiated. – Ottmar Edenhofer
It does not work with Global Cooling because you have no perpetrator or victim. Cash needs to flow from the Developed Nations to the Less Developed nations.
Richard S. Lindzen outlines the whole thing here (and he is from MIT)
Climate Science: Is it currently designed to answer questions?
Richard S. Lindzen, Alfred P. Sloan Professor of Meteorology at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and lead author of Chapter 7, “Physical Climate Processes and Feedbacks,” of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change’s Third Assessment Report on climate change.
Program in Atmospheres, Oceans and Climate MIT, Cambridge MA 02139, USA.
Now, if you want to have a debate about Global Wealth Redistribution, lets have it. But there is no need to bring science into it or corrupt science. That is UNETHICAL & DISHONEST. And yes, a SCAM.
They can’t help it, Anon. They must. There is no Communism but Scientific Communism.
Those on the left believe that evolution and communism are both the right answer, and yet they somehow miss the great irony.
Because scientists in the 1970’s didn’t do much grant riding like they do now, thus the pressure to mislead and make lies was low. I don’t think they were trying to create a scam at all.
I think they got carried away with the cooling events. in part because there were real food shortage going in parts of the world at the time, coupled with a lot of media attention.
The Ambulance Chasers are really busy proving we won’t survive the ‘teens.
It was a good location for mills but is prone to flooding with several streams converging there. It floods every 4 years on average with frequent major floods. A flood in 1868 killed about 40 people.
What stands out for me is in the last article they claim rain that fell in Pennsylvania had a ph of 2.3 … I’m not believing that for one second. Battery acid, stomach acid and the like, has a ph of 2.3. I don’t believe there has ever been any rain anywhere on the planet that has ever had a ph value as low as 2.3. I find this extremely difficult to believe.
Yes, sum ting wong. 2.3 is less than the minimum reported in this USGS report for Kane, PA which covered the period in question.
To this day big trucks are restricted to 55 mph on the interstates around Knoxville, TN due to the “acid rain” scare. The idea being that the prevailing weather patterns take vehicle emissions over the Smoky Mountains to the east.
That is interesting. I did not know that. I live just south of Nashville. I have an outdoor saltwater swimming pool (salt water helps a little to stabilize pH, not much though as it is only around 4800 ppm). I rarely have to alter the pH of our pool, which stays pretty constant at 8.4-8.6 .. even with all of the rain we get (avg. 54″ per year). And we are getting a ton of rain right now (due to the Alberto storm starting to hit us).
If we had “acid rain” coming down, I would have to continually raise the pH of our pool, but I don’t. Typical rain water is ever so slightly acidic (about 6.8pH), but with the salinity of our pool, the pH barely changes. When we had fresh water I would have to raise the pH about 2 or 3 times per year, and only by about 0.3-0.4 pH at any time.
This all indicates to me that our rain is nowhere near “acid rain”, and especially nothing even remotely close to 2.3pH … I simply do not believe there has ever been any rain on this planet that has reached as low as 2.3ph … you would have to physically show me. Just not buying it. That is extremely acidic for any H2O in our atmosphere.
The speed limit of I-40 from Knoxville east up through the gorge is 55 mph or less for big trucks. To the west it extends about 20 miles.
Here is an old article from when they started enacting it in 2006.
There’s hardly any SOx or NOx in diesel emissions these days.
The lowest “minimum” value I found in that entire report was 3.37pH .. and that was for a single event. 3.37pH is quite a bit less acidic than 2.3pH
I was agreeing with you, 2.3 pH is more acidic but seems to be in error.
Battery acid, which is diluted, and stomach acid have a pH around 1.
Not according to the pH charts that I have read. Not true at all. The typical lead-acid battery at your local automotive store has a pH between 2 and 2.6. A typical normal human stomach contains acid with a pH of around 2.4.
I should point out too that if you were standing in rain of 2.3pH, it would burn your skin. Within 24hrs your clothing would fall apart. If you were in it for an length of time (say more than 10min) you would have physical and lasting scars.
“What stands out for me is the $100 million. Scientists now expect $billions for their scams.”
You need a lot more dollars to buy the same stuff.
The U.S. Congress established three key objectives for monetary policy in the Federal Reserve Act: maximizing employment, stabilizing prices, and moderating long-term interest rates.
1913 ounce of gold $20.67