The Wildly Fraudulent TOBS Temperature Adjustment

NOAA massively tampers with US temperature data, to turn a 90 year cooling trend into a warming trend.

Their main excuse for doing this is Time of Observation Bias (TOBS.)

NOAA says that station operators in the past used to reset their min/max thermometers in the afternoon, and now they reset them in the morning. The theory being that resetting thermometers in the afternoon causes double counting of hot days, and resetting thermometers in the morning causes double counting of cold days. So NOAA cools the past and warms the present to compensate.

This is easy to test. I split the stations up into two groups – those that took readings in the morning during July, 1936 and those that took readings in the afternoon during July, 1936. I chose July 1936 because, it was an extremely hot month, which NOAA’s adjustments massively cool.

NOAA is correct that most stations took their readings in the afternoon during that month: 937 currently active USHCN stations were afternoon stations in 1936, and only 140 were morning stations. So lets see how the trends compare.

The two groups of stations show identical trends in temperature anomaly. The TOBS adjustment is fake.  There is no indication of double counting.

Additionally, the trends in the frequency of hot days are also identical for the two groups, but the morning stations tend to have more hot days. This is because people in warm climates tend to work earlier in the morning.

This is confirmed by looking at the latitude of the stations. Morning stations average about one degree further south than afternoon stations.

Station history was obtained from this archived NOAA link : USHCN ORNL/CDIAC-87 NDP-019

In order to test out double counting of hot days, I selected two adjacent stations in Missouri. Mexico, Missouri took their readings in the morning during July, 1936 and Warrenton, Missouri took their readings in the afternoon that month.

According to TOBS theory, we should see more 100 degree days in Warrenton than in Mexico, but we see the opposite.  Mexico, Missouri consistently shows more 100 degree days than Warrenton, though the patterns are nearly identical. There is no indication that TOBS theory has any basis in reality.

Morning station list :

FAIRHOPE 2 NE       	AL	USC00012813	
CHILDS              	AZ	USC00021614	
GRAND CANYON NP 2   	AZ	USC00023596	
LEES FERRY          	AZ	USC00024849	
MIAMI               	AZ	USC00025512	
SACATON             	AZ	USC00027370	
SAFFORD AGRICULTRL C	AZ	USC00027390	
YUMA CITRUS STN     	AZ	USC00029652	
GRAVETTE            	AR	USC00032930	
FAIRMONT            	CA	USC00042941	
HANFORD 1 S         	CA	USC00043747	
HEALDSBURG          	CA	USC00043875	
QUINCY              	CA	USC00047195	
SUSANVILLE 2SW      	CA	USC00048702	
TEJON RANCHO        	CA	USC00048839	
TUSTIN IRVINE RCH   	CA	USC00049087	
APALACHICOLA  AIRPOR	FL	USC00080211	
BARTOW 1SE          	FL	USC00080478	
BELLE GLADE         	FL	USC00080611	
FT LAUDERDALE       	FL	USC00083163	
MADISON             	FL	USC00085275	
PERRINE 4W          	FL	USC00087020	
TITUSVILLE          	FL	USC00088942	
HAWKINSVILLE        	GA	USC00094170	
QUITMAN 2 NW        	GA	USC00097276	
TIFTON              	GA	USC00098703	
ARROWROCK DAM       	ID	USC00100448	
CAMBRIDGE           	ID	USC00101408	
FENN RS             	ID	USC00103143	
HOLLISTER           	ID	USC00104295	
SALMON-KSRA         	ID	USC00108080	
CHARLES CITY        	IA	USC00131402	
FRANKFORT DOWNTOWN  	KY	USC00153028	
ALEXANDRIA          	LA	USC00160098	
PLAIN DEALING       	LA	USC00167344	
EASTPORT            	ME	USC00172426	
LEWISTON            	ME	USC00174566	
BLUE HILL           	MA	USC00190736	
ALLEGAN 5NE         	MI	USC00200128	
GREENVILLE          	MS	USC00223605	
NATCHEZ             	MS	USC00226177	
FARMINGTON          	MO	USC00232809	
MEXICO              	MO	USC00235541	
MTN GROVE 2 N       	MO	USC00235834	
UNIONVILLE          	MO	USC00238523	
KALISPELL GLACIER AP	MT	USC00244558	
MOCCASIN EXP STN    	MT	USC00245761	
ALLIANCE 1WNW       	NE	USC00250130	
BEATRICE 1N         	NE	USC00250622	
CRETE 4ESE          	NE	USC00252020	
IMPERIAL            	NE	USC00254110	
NORTH LOUP          	NE	USC00256040	
SEWARD              	NE	USC00257715	
AUSTIN #2           	NV	USC00260507	
FALLON EXP STN      	NV	USC00262780	
MCGILL              	NV	USC00264950	
MINA                	NV	USC00265168	
HANOVER             	NH	USC00273850	
LONG BRANCH OAKHURST	NJ	USC00284987	
MOORESTOWN          	NJ	USC00285728	
PLAINFIELD          	NJ	USC00287079	
MTN PARK            	NM	USC00295960	
TULAROSA            	NM	USC00299165	
BATAVIA             	NY	USC00300443	
ELMIRA              	NY	USC00302610	
HEMLOCK             	NY	USC00303773	
INDIAN LAKE 2SW     	NY	USC00304102	
ITHACA CORNELL UNIV 	NY	USC00304174	
LAKE PLACID 2 S     	NY	USC00304555	
EMMONS              	NY	USC00305113	
OSWEGO E            	NY	USC00306314	
PORT JERVIS         	NY	USC00306774	
STILLWATER RSVR     	NY	USC00308248	
LUMBERTON           	NC	USC00315177	
DICKINSON EXP STN   	ND	USC00322188	
LANGDON EXP FARM    	ND	USC00324958	
MANDAN EXP STN      	ND	USC00325479	
NAPOLEON            	ND	USC00326255	
NEW ENGLAND         	ND	USC00326315	
WILLOW CITY         	ND	USC00329445	
FINDLAY WPCC        	OH	USC00332791	
GREENVILLE WTP      	OH	USC00333375	
PORTSMOUTH-SCIOTOVIL	OH	USC00336781	
WAUSEON WTP         	OH	USC00338822	
BEND                	OR	USC00350694	
PILOT ROCK 1 SE     	OR	USC00356634	
ROSEBURG KQEN       	OR	USC00357331	
FRANKLIN            	PA	USC00363028	
JOHNSTOWN           	PA	USC00364385	
PALMERTON           	PA	USC00366689	
READING 4 NNW       	PA	USC00367322	
RIDGWAY             	PA	USC00367477	
STATE COLLEGE       	PA	USC00368449	
STROUDSBURG         	PA	USC00368596	
WARREN              	PA	USC00369298	
CALHOUN FALLS       	SC	USC00381277	
CAMDEN 3 W          	SC	USC00381310	
CHERAW              	SC	USC00381588	
COLUMBIA UNIV OF SC 	SC	USC00381944	
CONWAY              	SC	USC00381997	
DARLINGTON          	SC	USC00382260	
KINGSTREE           	SC	USC00384753	
ORANGEBURG 2        	SC	USC00386527	
YEMASSEE 1 N        	SC	USC00389469	
RAPID CITY 4NW      	SD	USC00396947	
UNION CITY          	TN	USC00409219	
ALICE               	TX	USC00410144	
BALLINGER 2 NW      	TX	USC00410493	
BRENHAM             	TX	USC00411048	
CORSICANA           	TX	USC00412019	
DUBLIN 2SE          	TX	USC00412598	
EAGLE PASS 3N       	TX	USC00412679	
FLATONIA 4SE        	TX	USC00413183	
HASKELL             	TX	USC00413992	
LAMPASAS            	TX	USC00415018	
LLANO               	TX	USC00415272	
MCCAMEY             	TX	USC00415707	
MEXIA               	TX	USC00415869	
PECOS               	TX	USC00416892	
RIO GRANDE CITY     	TX	USC00417622	
TEMPLE              	TX	USC00418910	
LOGAN UTAH ST UNIV  	UT	USC00425186	
LEXINGTON           	VA	USC00444876	
ROCKY MT            	VA	USC00447338	
STAUNTON WTP        	VA	USC00448062	
ABERDEEN            	WA	USC00450008	
BLAINE              	WA	USC00450729	
CLEARBROOK          	WA	USC00451484	
LONG BEACH EXP STN  	WA	USC00454748	
POMEROY             	WA	USC00456610	
PORT ANGELES        	WA	USC00456624	
PULLMAN 2 NW        	WA	USC00456789	
RAYMOND 2 S         	WA	USC00456914	
SUNNYSIDE           	WA	USC00458207	
PARSONS 1 NE        	WV	USC00466867	
OSHKOSH             	WI	USC00476330	
MIDWEST             	WY	USC00486195	
NEWCASTLE           	WY	USC00486660	
WORLAND             	WY	USC00489770	
YELLOWSTONE PK MAMMO	WY	USC00489905	

Afternoon station list :

BREWTON 3 SSE       	AL	USC00011084
GAINESVILLE LOCK    	AL	USC00013160
GREENSBORO          	AL	USC00013511
HIGHLAND HOME       	AL	USC00013816
SAINT BERNARD       	AL	USC00017157
SCOTTSBORO          	AL	USC00017304
SELMA               	AL	USC00017366
TALLADEGA           	AL	USC00018024
THOMASVILLE         	AL	USC00018178
TROY                	AL	USC00018323
UNION SPRINGS 9 S   	AL	USC00018438
VALLEY HEAD         	AL	USC00018469
AJO                 	AZ	USC00020080
BUCKEYE             	AZ	USC00021026
CANYON DE CHELLY    	AZ	USC00021248
FT VALLEY           	AZ	USC00023160
HOLBROOK            	AZ	USC00024089
KINGMAN #2          	AZ	USC00024645
PARKER              	AZ	USC00026250
PRESCOTT            	AZ	USC00026796
ROOSEVELT 1 WNW     	AZ	USC00027281
SAINT JOHNS         	AZ	USC00027435
SELIGMAN            	AZ	USC00027716
TOMBSTONE           	AZ	USC00028619
TUCSON WFO          	AZ	USC00028815
WICKENBURG          	AZ	USC00029287
WILLIAMS            	AZ	USC00029359
BRINKLEY            	AR	USC00030936
CONWAY              	AR	USC00031596
CORNING             	AR	USC00031632
EUREKA SPRINGS 3 WNW	AR	USC00032356
FAYETTEVILLE EXP STN	AR	USC00032444
MAMMOTH SPRING      	AR	USC00034572
MENA                	AR	USC00034756
NEWPORT             	AR	USC00035186
PINE BLUFF          	AR	USC00035754
POCAHONTAS 1        	AR	USC00035820
PRESCOTT 2 NNW      	AR	USC00035908
ROHWER 2 NNE        	AR	USC00036253
SUBIACO             	AR	USC00036928
BERKELEY            	CA	USC00040693
BLYTHE              	CA	USC00040924
BRAWLEY 2 SW        	CA	USC00041048
CEDARVILLE          	CA	USC00041614
CHICO UNIV FARM     	CA	USC00041715
CHULA VISTA         	CA	USC00041758
COLFAX              	CA	USC00041912
CUYAMACA            	CA	USC00042239
DAVIS 2 WSW EXP FARM	CA	USC00042294
DEATH VALLEY        	CA	USC00042319
ELECTRA P H         	CA	USC00042728
FT BRAGG 5 N        	CA	USC00043161
HAPPY CAMP RS       	CA	USC00043761
INDEPENDENCE        	CA	USC00044232
INDIO FIRE STN      	CA	USC00044259
LAKE SPAULDING      	CA	USC00044713
LEMON COVE          	CA	USC00044890
LIVERMORE           	CA	USC00044997
LODI                	CA	USC00045032
MARYSVILLE          	CA	USC00045385
MERCED              	CA	USC00045532
MT SHASTA           	CA	USC00045983
NAPA STATE HOSPITAL 	CA	USC00046074
NEWPORT BEACH HARBOR	CA	USC00046175
OJAI                	CA	USC00046399
ORLAND              	CA	USC00046506
ORLEANS             	CA	USC00046508
PASADENA            	CA	USC00046719
PASO ROBLES         	CA	USC00046730
PETALUMA AIRPORT    	CA	USC00046826
REDLANDS            	CA	USC00047306
SAN LUIS OBISPO POLY	CA	USC00047851
SANTA BARBARA       	CA	USC00047902
SANTA CRUZ          	CA	USC00047916
SANTA ROSA          	CA	USC00047965
TAHOE CITY          	CA	USC00048758
UKIAH               	CA	USC00049122
VACAVILLE           	CA	USC00049200
WASCO               	CA	USC00049452
WEAVERVILLE         	CA	USC00049490
WILLOWS 6 W         	CA	USC00049699
YOSEMITE PARK HQ    	CA	USC00049855
YREKA               	CA	USC00049866
BOULDER             	CO	USC00050848
CANON CITY          	CO	USC00051294
CHEESMAN            	CO	USC00051528
CHEYENNE WELLS      	CO	USC00051564
COLLBRAN            	CO	USC00051741
DEL NORTE 3ENE      	CO	USC00052184
DILLON 1 E          	CO	USC00052281
EADS                	CO	USC00052446
FT COLLINS          	CO	USC00053005
FT MORGAN           	CO	USC00053038
FRUITA              	CO	USC00053146
GUNNISON 3SW        	CO	USC00053662
HERMIT 7 ESE        	CO	USC00053951
HOLLY               	CO	USC00054076
LAMAR               	CO	USC00054770
LAS ANIMAS          	CO	USC00054834
MANASSA             	CO	USC00055322
MONTROSE #2         	CO	USC00055722
ROCKY FORD 2 SE     	CO	USC00057167
SAGUACHE            	CO	USC00057337
STEAMBOAT SPRINGS   	CO	USC00057936
TELLURIDE 4WNW      	CO	USC00058204
TRINIDAD            	CO	USC00058429
WRAY                	CO	USC00059243
FALLS VILLAGE       	CT	USC00062658
GROTON              	CT	USC00063207
STAMFORD 5 N        	CT	USC00067970
STORRS              	CT	USC00068138
DOVER               	DE	USC00072730
GREENWOOD 2NE       	DE	USC00073595
MILFORD 2 SE        	DE	USC00075915
WILMINGTON PORTER RS	DE	USC00079605
ARCADIA             	FL	USC00080228
DE FUNIAK SPRINGS 1 	FL	USC00082220
EVERGLADES          	FL	USC00082850
FEDERAL PT          	FL	USC00082915
FERNANDINA BEACH    	FL	USC00082944
FT PIERCE           	FL	USC00083207
INVERNESS 3 SE      	FL	USC00084289
LAKE CITY 2 E       	FL	USC00084731
OCALA               	FL	USC00086414
SAINT LEO           	FL	USC00087851
TARPON SPGS SEWAGE P	FL	USC00088824
ALBANY 3 SE         	GA	USC00090140
BAINBRIDGE INTL PAPE	GA	USC00090586
BRUNSWICK           	GA	USC00091340
COVINGTON           	GA	USC00092318
DAHLONEGA 4WSW      	GA	USC00092475
EASTMAN 1 W         	GA	USC00092966
GAINESVILLE         	GA	USC00093621
GLENNVILLE 3NW      	GA	USC00093754
MILLEDGEVILLE       	GA	USC00095874
MILLEN 4 N          	GA	USC00095882
NEWNAN 7 WNW        	GA	USC00096335
ROME                	GA	USC00097600
TALBOTTON           	GA	USC00098535
TOCCOA              	GA	USC00098740
WARRENTON           	GA	USC00099141
WASHINGTON 2 ESE    	GA	USC00099157
WAYCROSS 4 NE       	GA	USC00099186
W PT                	GA	USC00099291
ABERDEEN EXP STN    	ID	USC00100010
ASHTON 1N           	ID	USC00100470
DWORSHAK FISH HATCHE	ID	USC00102845
GLENNS FERRY        	ID	USC00103631
GRACE               	ID	USC00103732
HAZELTON            	ID	USC00104140
JEROME              	ID	USC00104670
KELLOGG             	ID	USC00104831
KETCHUM RS          	ID	USC00104845
LIFTON PUMPING STN  	ID	USC00105275
MACKAY LOST RVR RS  	ID	USC00105462
MOSCOW U OF I       	ID	USC00106152
NEW MEADOWS RS      	ID	USC00106388
OAKLEY              	ID	USC00106542
PAYETTE             	ID	USC00106891
PORTHILL            	ID	USC00107264
PRIEST RVR EXP STN  	ID	USC00107386
SANDPOINT EXP STN   	ID	USC00108137
ALEDO               	IL	USC00110072
ANNA 2 NNE          	IL	USC00110187
AURORA              	IL	USC00110338
CARLINVILLE         	IL	USC00111280
CHARLESTON          	IL	USC00111436
DANVILLE            	IL	USC00112140
DECATUR WTP         	IL	USC00112193
DIXON 1W            	IL	USC00112348
DU QUOIN 4 SE       	IL	USC00112483
GALVA               	IL	USC00113335
HARRISBURG          	IL	USC00113879
HILLSBORO           	IL	USC00114108
HOOPESTON           	IL	USC00114198
JACKSONVILLE 2E     	IL	USC00114442
LA HARPE            	IL	USC00114823
LINCOLN             	IL	USC00115079
MARENGO             	IL	USC00115326
MCLEANSBORO         	IL	USC00115515
MINONK              	IL	USC00115712
MONMOUTH            	IL	USC00115768
MORRISON            	IL	USC00115833
MT CARROLL          	IL	USC00115901
MT VERNON 3 NE      	IL	USC00115943
OLNEY 2S            	IL	USC00116446
OTTAWA 5SW          	IL	USC00116526
PALESTINE           	IL	USC00116558
PANA                	IL	USC00116579
PARIS STP           	IL	USC00116610
PONTIAC             	IL	USC00116910
RUSHVILLE 4NE       	IL	USC00117551
SPARTA 1 W          	IL	USC00118147
CHAMPAIGN 3S        	IL	USC00118740
WALNUT              	IL	USC00118916
WHITE HALL 1 E      	IL	USC00119241
WINDSOR             	IL	USC00119354
ANDERSON SEWAGE PLT 	IN	USC00120177
ANGOLA              	IN	USC00120200
BERNE WWTP          	IN	USC00120676
BLOOMINGTON INDIANA 	IN	USC00120784
BROOKVILLE          	IN	USC00121030
CAMBRIDGE CITY 3 N  	IN	USC00121229
CHARLESTOWN 5 NNW   	IN	USC00121425
COLUMBUS            	IN	USC00121747
CRAWFORDSVILLE 6 SE 	IN	USC00121873
DELPHI 2 N          	IN	USC00122149
GOSHEN 3SW          	IN	USC00123418
GREENCASTLE 1 W     	IN	USC00123513
GREENFIELD          	IN	USC00123527
HOBART 2 WNW        	IN	USC00124008
HUNTINGTON          	IN	USC00124181
LAPORTE             	IN	USC00124837
MADISON SEWAGE PLT  	IN	USC00125237
MARION 2 N          	IN	USC00125337
MT VERNON           	IN	USC00126001
OOLITIC PURDUE EX FM	IN	USC00126580
PAOLI               	IN	USC00126705
PRINCETON 1 W       	IN	USC00127125
RENSSELAER          	IN	USC00127298
ROCHESTER           	IN	USC00127482
ROCKVILLE           	IN	USC00127522
RUSHVILLE           	IN	USC00127646
SALEM               	IN	USC00127755
SCOTTSBURG          	IN	USC00127875
SEYMOUR 2 N         	IN	USC00127935
SHOALS 8 S          	IN	USC00128036
VEVAY               	IN	USC00129080
VINCENNES 5 NE      	IN	USC00129113
WASHINGTON 1 W      	IN	USC00129253
WHEATFIELD          	IN	USC00129511
WHITESTOWN          	IN	USC00129557
WINAMAC 2SSE        	IN	USC00129670
ALBIA 3 NNE         	IA	USC00130112
ALGONA 3 W          	IA	USC00130133
BELLE PLAINE        	IA	USC00130600
CLARINDA            	IA	USC00131533
CLINTON #1          	IA	USC00131635
ESTHERVILLE 4E      	IA	USC00132724
FAIRFIELD           	IA	USC00132789
FAYETTE             	IA	USC00132864
FOREST CITY 2 NNE   	IA	USC00132977
FT DODGE 5NNW       	IA	USC00132999
INDIANOLA 2W        	IA	USC00134063
IOWA FALLS          	IA	USC00134142
LE MARS             	IA	USC00134735
LOGAN               	IA	USC00134894
MT AYR              	IA	USC00135769
MT PLEASANT 1 SSW   	IA	USC00135796
NEW HAMPTON         	IA	USC00135952
ROCK RAPIDS         	IA	USC00137147
ROCKWELL CITY       	IA	USC00137161
STORM LAKE          	IA	USC00137979
TOLEDO 3N           	IA	USC00138296
WASHINGTON          	IA	USC00138688
ASHLAND             	KS	USC00140365
ATCHISON            	KS	USC00140405
COLDWATER           	KS	USC00141704
COLUMBUS            	KS	USC00141740
EL DORADO           	KS	USC00142401
ELLSWORTH           	KS	USC00142459
FT SCOTT            	KS	USC00142835
HAYS 1 S            	KS	USC00143527
HORTON              	KS	USC00143810
INDEPENDENCE        	KS	USC00143954
JETMORE 8NNW        	KS	USC00144087
LAKIN               	KS	USC00144464
LARNED              	KS	USC00144530
LAWRENCE            	KS	USC00144559
LEAVENWORTH         	KS	USC00144588
LIBERAL             	KS	USC00144695
MANHATTAN           	KS	USC00144972
MCPHERSON           	KS	USC00145152
MEDICINE LODGE      	KS	USC00145173
MINNEAPOLIS         	KS	USC00145363
NORTON 9SSE         	KS	USC00145856
OBERLIN             	KS	USC00145906
OLATHE 3E           	KS	USC00145972
OTTAWA              	KS	USC00146128
SAINT FRANCIS       	KS	USC00147093
SCOTT CITY          	KS	USC00147271
SEDAN               	KS	USC00147305
WAKEENEY            	KS	USC00148495
ASHLAND             	KY	USC00150254
BEREA COLLEGE       	KY	USC00150619
CAVE RUN  LAKE      	KY	USC00152791
GREENSBURG          	KY	USC00153430
HOPKINSVILLE        	KY	USC00153994
LEITCHFIELD 2 N     	KY	USC00154703
SHELBYVILLE 1 E     	KY	USC00157324
WILLIAMSBURG        	KY	USC00158709
WILLIAMSTOWN        	KY	USC00158714
AMITE               	LA	USC00160205
BASTROP             	LA	USC00160537
BUNKIE              	LA	USC00161287
CALHOUN RSCH STN    	LA	USC00161411
COVINGTON 4 NNW     	LA	USC00162151
DONALDSONVILLE 4 SW 	LA	USC00162534
FRANKLIN 3 NW       	LA	USC00163313
GRAND COTEAU        	LA	USC00163800
HOUMA               	LA	USC00164407
JENNINGS            	LA	USC00164700
ST JOSEPH 3 N       	LA	USC00168163
THIBODAUX 4 SE      	LA	USC00169013
WINNSBORO 5 SSE     	LA	USC00169806
ACADIA NP           	ME	USC00170100
FARMINGTON          	ME	USC00172765
GARDINER            	ME	USC00173046
HOULTON 5N          	ME	USC00173944
MILLINOCKET         	ME	USC00175304
PRESQUE ISLE        	ME	USC00176937
WOODLAND            	ME	USC00179891
CAMBRIDGE WATER TRMT	MD	USC00181385
CHESTERTOWN         	MD	USC00181750
CUMBERLAND 2        	MD	USC00182282
DENTON 2 E          	MD	USC00182523
GLENN DALE BELL STN 	MD	USC00183675
LAUREL 3 W          	MD	USC00185111
MILLINGTON 1 SE     	MD	USC00185985
OAKLAND 1 SE        	MD	USC00186620
OWINGS FERRY LANDING	MD	USC00186770
PRINCESS ANNE       	MD	USC00187330
ROYAL OAK 2 SSW     	MD	USC00187806
SALISBURY           	MD	USC00188000
WESTMINSTER         	MD	USC00189440
WOODSTOCK           	MD	USC00189750
AMHERST             	MA	USC00190120
BEDFORD             	MA	USC00190535
GREAT BARRINGTON 2N 	MA	USC00193213
LAWRENCE            	MA	USC00194105
NEW BEDFORD         	MA	USC00195246
PLYMOUTH-KINGSTON   	MA	USC00196486
PROVINCETOWN        	MA	USC00196681
TAUNTON             	MA	USC00198367
ADRIAN 2 NNE        	MI	USC00200032
ALMA                	MI	USC00200146
ANN ARBOR U OF MICH 	MI	USC00200230
BIG RAPIDS WTR WKS  	MI	USC00200779
CHAMPION VAN RIPER P	MI	USC00201439
CHATHAM EXP FARM 2  	MI	USC00201486
CHEBOYGAN           	MI	USC00201492
COLDWATER ST SCHOOL 	MI	USC00201675
EAST TAWAS          	MI	USC00202423
FAYETTE 4 SW        	MI	USC00202737
HART 3 WSW          	MI	USC00203632
HILLSDALE           	MI	USC00203823
IRON MT KINGSFORD WW	MI	USC00204090
IRONWOOD            	MI	USC00204104
KALAMAZOO STATE HOSP	MI	USC00204244
MIDLAND             	MI	USC00205434
CENTRAL MICHIGAN UNI	MI	USC00205662
MUNISING            	MI	USC00205690
NEWBERRY CORRECTIONA	MI	USC00205816
OWOSSO WWTP         	MI	USC00206300
S HAVEN             	MI	USC00207690
STAMBAUGH 2SSE      	MI	USC00207812
ADA                 	MN	USC00210018
ALBERT LEA 3 SE     	MN	USC00210075
BAUDETTE            	MN	USC00210515
CHASKA              	MN	USC00211465
CLOQUET             	MN	USC00211630
DETROIT LAKES 1 NNE 	MN	USC00212142
EVELETH WWTP        	MN	USC00212645
FAIRMONT            	MN	USC00212698
FARMINGTON 3 NW     	MN	USC00212737
FOSSTON 1 E         	MN	USC00212916
GRAND MEADOW        	MN	USC00213290
ITASCA UNIV OF MINN 	MN	USC00214106
LEECH LAKE          	MN	USC00214652
MILAN 1 NW          	MN	USC00215400
MONTEVIDEO 1 SW     	MN	USC00215563
MORA                	MN	USC00215615
MORRIS W CNTRL RSCH 	MN	USC00215638
NEW ULM 2 SE        	MN	USC00215887
OLIVIA 3E           	MN	USC00216152
PINE RVR DAM        	MN	USC00216547
PIPESTONE           	MN	USC00216565
ROSEAU              	MN	USC00217087
ST PETER            	MN	USC00217405
SANDY LAKE DAM LIBBY	MN	USC00217460
TWO HARBORS         	MN	USC00218419
WALKER              	MN	USC00218618
WINNEBAGO           	MN	USC00219046
ZUMBROTA            	MN	USC00219249
ABERDEEN            	MS	USC00220021
BATESVILLE 2 SW     	MS	USC00220488
BOONEVILLE          	MS	USC00220955
BROOKHAVEN CITY     	MS	USC00221094
CANTON 4N           	MS	USC00221389
CLARKSDALE          	MS	USC00221707
COLUMBIA            	MS	USC00221865
COLUMBUS            	MS	USC00221880
CORINTH 7 SW        	MS	USC00221962
CRYSTAL SPGS EXP STN	MS	USC00222094
FOREST              	MS	USC00223107
HATTIESBURG 5SW     	MS	USC00223887
HOLLY SPRINGS 4 N   	MS	USC00224173
KOSCIUSKO           	MS	USC00224776
LAUREL              	MS	USC00224939
LOUISVILLE          	MS	USC00225247
MONTICELLO          	MS	USC00225987
MOORHEAD            	MS	USC00226009
PASCAGOULA 3 NE     	MS	USC00226718
PONTOTOC EXP STN    	MS	USC00227111
POPLARVILLE EXP STN 	MS	USC00227128
PORT GIBSON 1 NE    	MS	USC00227132
STATE UNIV          	MS	USC00228374
UNIVERSITY          	MS	USC00229079
WATER VALLEY        	MS	USC00229400
WAVELAND            	MS	USC00229426
WAYNESBORO 2 W      	MS	USC00229439
WOODVILLE 4 ESE     	MS	USC00229793
YAZOO CITY 5 NNE    	MS	USC00229860
APPLETON CITY       	MO	USC00230204
BOWLING GREEN 1 E   	MO	USC00230856
BRUNSWICK           	MO	USC00231037
CARUTHERSVILLE      	MO	USC00231364
CLINTON             	MO	USC00231711
CONCEPTION          	MO	USC00231822
DONIPHAN            	MO	USC00232289
JEFFERSON CITY WTP  	MO	USC00234271
LAMAR 7N            	MO	USC00234705
LEBANON 2W          	MO	USC00234825
LEES SUMMIT REED WR 	MO	USC00234850
LEXINGTON 3E        	MO	USC00234904
LOCKWOOD            	MO	USC00235027
MARBLE HILL         	MO	USC00235253
MOBERLY             	MO	USC00235671
NEOSHO              	MO	USC00235976
ROLLA MISSOURI S T  	MO	USC00237263
SPICKARD 7 W        	MO	USC00237963
STEFFENVILLE        	MO	USC00238051
SWEET SPRINGS       	MO	USC00238223
TRUMAN DAM   RSVR   	MO	USC00238466
WARRENTON 1 N       	MO	USC00238725
ANACONDA            	MT	USC00240199
AUGUSTA             	MT	USC00240364
BIG TIMBER          	MT	USC00240780
BOZEMAN MONTANA STAT	MT	USC00241044
CASCADE 5 S         	MT	USC00241552
CHINOOK             	MT	USC00241722
CHOTEAU             	MT	USC00241737
DILLON U OF MONTANA 	MT	USC00242409
EKALAKA             	MT	USC00242689
ENNIS               	MT	USC00242793
FLATWILLOW 4 ENE    	MT	USC00243013
FORKS 4 NNE         	MT	USC00243089
FT ASSINIBOINE      	MT	USC00243110
FORTINE 1 N         	MT	USC00243139
GLENDIVE            	MT	USC00243581
HAMILTON            	MT	USC00243885
HEBGEN DAM          	MT	USC00244038
HUNTLEY EXP STN     	MT	USC00244345
JORDAN              	MT	USC00244522
LIBBY 1 NE RS       	MT	USC00245015
LIVINGSTON 12 S     	MT	USC00245080
MALTA 7 E           	MT	USC00245338
MILDRED 5 N         	MT	USC00245668
NORRIS MADISON PWR H	MT	USC00246157
PHILIPSBURG RS      	MT	USC00246472
PLEVNA              	MT	USC00246601
RED LODGE           	MT	USC00246918
SAINT IGNATIUS      	MT	USC00247286
SAVAGE              	MT	USC00247382
VALIER              	MT	USC00248501
VIRGINIA CITY       	MT	USC00248597
WEST YELLOWSTONE    	MT	USC00248857
WHITE SULPHUR SPRING	MT	USC00248930
ALBION              	NE	USC00250070
ASHLAND NO 2        	NE	USC00250375
ATKINSON 3SW        	NE	USC00250420
AUBURN 5 ESE        	NE	USC00250435
BEAVER CITY         	NE	USC00250640
BRIDGEPORT          	NE	USC00251145
BROKEN BOW 2 W      	NE	USC00251200
CURTIS 3NNE         	NE	USC00252100
DAVID CITY          	NE	USC00252205
FAIRBURY 5S         	NE	USC00252820
FAIRMONT            	NE	USC00252840
FRANKLIN            	NE	USC00253035
GENEVA              	NE	USC00253175
GENOA 2 W           	NE	USC00253185
GOTHENBURG          	NE	USC00253365
HARRISON            	NE	USC00253615
HARTINGTON          	NE	USC00253630
HASTINGS 4N         	NE	USC00253660
HAY SPRINGS 12 S    	NE	USC00253715
HEBRON              	NE	USC00253735
HOLDREGE            	NE	USC00253910
KIMBALL 2NE         	NE	USC00254440
LODGEPOLE           	NE	USC00254900
LOUP CITY           	NE	USC00254985
MADISON             	NE	USC00255080
MC COOK             	NE	USC00255310
MERRIMAN            	NE	USC00255470
MINDEN              	NE	USC00255565
OAKDALE             	NE	USC00256135
PAWNEE CITY         	NE	USC00256570
PURDUM              	NE	USC00256970
RED CLOUD           	NE	USC00257070
SAINT PAUL          	NE	USC00257515
SYRACUSE            	NE	USC00258395
TECUMSEH 1S         	NE	USC00258465
TEKAMAH             	NE	USC00258480
WAKEFIELD           	NE	USC00258915
WEEPING WATER       	NE	USC00259090
YORK                	NE	USC00259510
BOULDER CITY        	NV	USC00261071
GOLCONDA            	NV	USC00263245
LOVELOCK            	NV	USC00264698
SEARCHLIGHT         	NV	USC00267369
WELLS               	NV	USC00268988
DURHAM              	NH	USC00272174
FIRST CONNECTICUT LA	NH	USC00272999
KEENE               	NH	USC00274399
BELVIDERE BRG       	NJ	USC00280734
BOONTON 1 SE        	NJ	USC00280907
CHARLOTTEBURG RESERV	NJ	USC00281582
FLEMINGTON 5 NNW    	NJ	USC00283029
HIGHTSTOWN 2 W      	NJ	USC00283951
INDIAN MILLS 2 W    	NJ	USC00284229
NEW BRUNSWICK 3 SE  	NJ	USC00286055
AZTEC RUINS NM      	NM	USC00290692
BELL RANCH          	NM	USC00290858
CARLSBAD            	NM	USC00291469
CHAMA               	NM	USC00291664
CIMARRON 4 SW       	NM	USC00291813
ELEPHANT BUTTE DAM  	NM	USC00292848
FT BAYARD           	NM	USC00293265
FT SUMNER           	NM	USC00293294
GAGE                	NM	USC00293368
JEMEZ SPRINGS       	NM	USC00294369
JORNADA EXP RANGE   	NM	USC00294426
LAS VEGAS WWTP      	NM	USC00294862
LOS LUNAS 3 SSW     	NM	USC00295150
LUNA RS             	NM	USC00295273
MOUNTAINAIR         	NM	USC00295965
OROGRANDE           	NM	USC00296435
RED RIVER           	NM	USC00297323
SAN JON             	NM	USC00297867
SANTA ROSA          	NM	USC00298107
SOCORRO             	NM	USC00298387
SPRINGER            	NM	USC00298501
STATE UNIV          	NM	USC00298535
TUCUMCARI 4 NE      	NM	USC00299156
ALFRED              	NY	USC00300085
ALLEGANY SP         	NY	USC00300093
ANGELICA            	NY	USC00300183
AUBURN              	NY	USC00300321
BRIDGEHAMPTON       	NY	USC00300889
BROCKPORT           	NY	USC00300937
CHAZY               	NY	USC00301401
COOPERSTOWN         	NY	USC00301752
CORTLAND            	NY	USC00301799
DANNEMORA           	NY	USC00301966
DANSVILLE           	NY	USC00301974
FREDONIA            	NY	USC00303033
GENEVA RSCH FARM    	NY	USC00303184
GLENHAM             	NY	USC00303259
GLOVERSVILLE        	NY	USC00303319
LAWRENCEVILLE 3 SW  	NY	USC00304647
LITTLE FALLS CITY RS	NY	USC00304791
LITTLE FALLS MILL ST	NY	USC00304796
LOCKPORT            	NY	USC00304844
LOWVILLE            	NY	USC00304912
MOHONK LAKE         	NY	USC00305426
MORRISVILLE 6 SW    	NY	USC00305512
NORWICH             	NY	USC00306085
OGDENSBURG 4 NE     	NY	USC00306164
SARATOGA SPRINGS 4 S	NY	USC00307484
SETAUKET STRONG     	NY	USC00307633
TROY L D            	NY	USC00308600
TUPPER LAKE SUNMOUNT	NY	USC00308631
WALDEN 1 ESE        	NY	USC00308906
WALES               	NY	USC00308910
WANAKENA RNGR SCHOOL	NY	USC00308944
WATERTOWN           	NY	USC00309000
WEST POINT          	NY	USC00309292
YORKTOWN HTS 1W     	NY	USC00309670
ALBEMARLE           	NC	USC00310090
CHAPEL HILL 2 W     	NC	USC00311677
EDENTON             	NC	USC00312635
ELIZABETH CITY      	NC	USC00312719
FAYETTEVILLE (PWC)  	NC	USC00313017
HENDERSON 2 NNW     	NC	USC00313969
HENDERSONVILLE 1 NE 	NC	USC00313976
HIGHLANDS           	NC	USC00314055
KINSTON 7 SE        	NC	USC00314684
LENOIR              	NC	USC00314938
LOUISBURG           	NC	USC00315123
MARION              	NC	USC00315340
MARSHALL            	NC	USC00315356
MONROE 2 SE         	NC	USC00315771
MOREHEAD CITY 2 WNW 	NC	USC00315830
MORGANTON           	NC	USC00315838
MT AIRY 2 W         	NC	USC00315890
REIDSVILLE 2 NW     	NC	USC00317202
SALISBURY           	NC	USC00317615
SMITHFIELD          	NC	USC00317994
SOUTHPORT 5 N       	NC	USC00318113
STATESVILLE 2 NNE   	NC	USC00318292
TARBORO 1 S         	NC	USC00318500
WAYNESVILLE 1 E     	NC	USC00319147
WILSON 3 SW         	NC	USC00319476
BOTTINEAU           	ND	USC00320941
CROSBY              	ND	USC00321871
DUNN CENTER  1E     	ND	USC00322365
FT YATES 4 SW       	ND	USC00323207
FULLERTON 1 ESE     	ND	USC00323287
GRAFTON             	ND	USC00323594
GRAND FORKS UNIV (NW	ND	USC00323621
HETTINGER           	ND	USC00324178
HILLSBORO 3 N       	ND	USC00324203
JAMESTOWN STATE HOSP	ND	USC00324418
LISBON              	ND	USC00325220
MOFFIT 3 SE         	ND	USC00326015
MOTT                	ND	USC00326155
RICHARDTON ABBEY    	ND	USC00327530
TOWNER 2 NE         	ND	USC00328792
WAHPETON 3 N        	ND	USC00329100
BUCYRUS             	OH	USC00331072
CADIZ               	OH	USC00331152
CHIPPEWA LAKE       	OH	USC00331541
CIRCLEVILLE         	OH	USC00331592
COSHOCTON WPC PLT   	OH	USC00331890
DELAWARE            	OH	USC00332119
HILLSBORO           	OH	USC00333758
HIRAM               	OH	USC00333780
KENTON              	OH	USC00334189
MC CONNELLSVILLE LK 	OH	USC00335041
MILLERSBURG         	OH	USC00335297
MILLPORT 4 NE       	OH	USC00335315
NORWALK WWTP        	OH	USC00336118
OBERLIN             	OH	USC00336196
PHILO 3 SW          	OH	USC00336600
TIFFIN              	OH	USC00338313
UPPER SANDUSKY      	OH	USC00338534
URBANA WWTP         	OH	USC00338552
WARREN 3 S          	OH	USC00338769
WAUSEON WTP         	OH	USC00338822
WAVERLY             	OH	USC00338830
WOOSTER EXP STATION 	OH	USC00339312
ADA                 	OK	USC00340017
ALTUS IRIG RSCH STN 	OK	USC00340179
ANTLERS             	OK	USC00340256
ARDMORE             	OK	USC00340292
BEAVER              	OK	USC00340593
BOISE CITY 2 E      	OK	USC00340908
BUFFALO 2 SSW       	OK	USC00341243
CARNEGIE 5 NE       	OK	USC00341504
CHEROKEE 4W         	OK	USC00341724
CLAREMORE 2 ENE     	OK	USC00341828
DURANT              	OK	USC00342678
ENID                	OK	USC00342912
ERICK               	OK	USC00342944
GEARY               	OK	USC00343497
GOODWELL RSCH STN   	OK	USC00343628
GUTHRIE 5S          	OK	USC00343821
HAMMON 3 SSW        	OK	USC00343871
HENNESSEY 4 ESE     	OK	USC00344055
HOLDENVILLE 2SSE    	OK	USC00344235
HOOKER              	OK	USC00344298
JEFFERSON           	OK	USC00344573
KENTON              	OK	USC00344766
KINGFISHER          	OK	USC00344861
LAWTON              	OK	USC00345063
MANGUM              	OK	USC00345509
MEEKER 5 W          	OK	USC00345779
MIAMI               	OK	USC00345855
MUSKOGEE            	OK	USC00346130
MUTUAL              	OK	USC00346139
NEWKIRK 5NE         	OK	USC00346278
OKEENE              	OK	USC00346629
OKEMAH              	OK	USC00346638
OKMULGEE WTR WKS    	OK	USC00346670
PAULS VALLEY 4 WSW  	OK	USC00346926
PAWHUSKA            	OK	USC00346935
PERRY               	OK	USC00347012
POTEAU WTR WKS      	OK	USC00347254
STILLWATER 2 W      	OK	USC00348501
TAHLEQUAH           	OK	USC00348677
WAURIKA             	OK	USC00349395
WEATHERFORD         	OK	USC00349422
WEBBERS FALLS 5 WSW 	OK	USC00349445
ASHLAND             	OR	USC00350304
BROOKINGS 2 SE      	OR	USC00351055
CASCADIA            	OR	USC00351433
CONDON              	OR	USC00351765
CORVALLIS STATE UNIV	OR	USC00351862
COTTAGE GROVE 2E    	OR	USC00351897
CRATER LAKE NPS HQ  	OR	USC00351946
DANNER              	OR	USC00352135
DUFUR               	OR	USC00352440
FOREST GROVE        	OR	USC00352997
FREMONT 5 NW        	OR	USC00353095
GRANTS PASS         	OR	USC00353445
HEADWORKS PORTLAND W	OR	USC00353770
HEPPNER             	OR	USC00353827
HERMISTON 1 SE      	OR	USC00353847
HOOD RVR EXP STN    	OR	USC00354003
KLAMATH FALLS 2 SSW 	OR	USC00354506
LAKEVIEW 2 NNW      	OR	USC00354670
MCKENZIE BRG RS     	OR	USC00355362
MC MINNVILLE        	OR	USC00355384
MILTON FREEWATER    	OR	USC00355593
MORO                	OR	USC00355734
PAISLEY             	OR	USC00356426
PRINEVILLE          	OR	USC00356883
PROSPECT 2 SW       	OR	USC00356907
RIDDLE              	OR	USC00357169
THREE LYNX          	OR	USC00358466
TILLAMOOK           	OR	USC00358494
UNION EXP STN       	OR	USC00358746
VALE                	OR	USC00358797
WALLOWA             	OR	USC00358997
CHAMBERSBURG 1 ESE  	PA	USC00361354
EISENHOWER NHS      	PA	USC00362537
GREENVILLE 2 NE     	PA	USC00363526
MONTROSE            	PA	USC00365915
NEW CASTLE 1 N      	PA	USC00366233
SELINSGROVE 2 S     	PA	USC00367931
TOWANDA 1 S         	PA	USC00368905
UNIONTOWN 1 NE      	PA	USC00369050
WELLSBORO 4 SW      	PA	USC00369408
W CHESTER 2 NW      	PA	USC00369464
YORK 3 SSW PUMP STN 	PA	USC00369933
KINGSTON            	RI	USC00374266
AIKEN 5SE           	SC	USC00380074
ANDERSON            	SC	USC00380165
BEAUFORT WWTP       	SC	USC00380559
BLACKVILLE 3 W      	SC	USC00380764
CLEMSON UNIV        	SC	USC00381770
CONWAY              	SC	USC00381997
GEORGETOWN 2 E      	SC	USC00383468
GREENWOOD           	SC	USC00383754
KERSHAW 1SW         	SC	USC00384690
LAURENS             	SC	USC00385017
LITTLE MTN          	SC	USC00385200
NEWBERRY            	SC	USC00386209
SALUDA              	SC	USC00387631
SANTUCK             	SC	USC00387722
SUMMERVILLE 4W      	SC	USC00388426
SUMTER              	SC	USC00388440
WALHALLA            	SC	USC00388887
WINNSBORO           	SC	USC00389327
WINTHROP UNIV       	SC	USC00389350
ACADEMY 2NE         	SD	USC00390043
ALEXANDRIA          	SD	USC00390128
CANTON              	SD	USC00391392
CLARK               	SD	USC00391739
COTTONWOOD 2 E      	SD	USC00391972
DUPREE              	SD	USC00392429
EUREKA              	SD	USC00392797
FAULKTON 1 NW       	SD	USC00392927
FORESTBURG 4 NNE    	SD	USC00393029
GANN VALLEY 4NW     	SD	USC00393217
HIGHMORE 1 W        	SD	USC00393832
HOT SPRINGS         	SD	USC00394007
HOWARD              	SD	USC00394037
KENNEBEC            	SD	USC00394516
MELLETTE 4 W        	SD	USC00395456
MENNO               	SD	USC00395481
MILBANK 4 NW        	SD	USC00395536
MURDO               	SD	USC00395891
OAHE DAM            	SD	USC00396170
VERMILLION 2 SE     	SD	USC00398622
WOOD                	SD	USC00399442
CLARKSVILLE WWTP    	TN	USC00401790
COPPERHILL          	TN	USC00402024
COVINGTON 3 SW      	TN	USC00402108
CROSSVILLE ED   RESE	TN	USC00402202
DICKSON             	TN	USC00402489
DOVER 1 W           	TN	USC00402589
JACKSON EXP STN     	TN	USC00404561
LEWISBURG EXP STN   	TN	USC00405187
MC MINNVILLE        	TN	USC00405882
MURFREESBORO 5 N    	TN	USC00406371
NEWPORT 1 NW        	TN	USC00406534
ROGERSVILLE 1 NE    	TN	USC00407884
TULLAHOMA           	TN	USC00409155
WAYNESBORO          	TN	USC00409502
ALBANY              	TX	USC00410120
ALPINE              	TX	USC00410174
BALMORHEA           	TX	USC00410498
BEEVILLE 5 NE       	TX	USC00410639
BLANCO              	TX	USC00410832
BOERNE              	TX	USC00410902
BOYS RCH            	TX	USC00411000
BROWNWOOD 2ENE      	TX	USC00411138
CATARINA            	TX	USC00411528
CLARKSVILLE 2NE     	TX	USC00411772
CROSBYTON           	TX	USC00412121
DANEVANG 1 W        	TX	USC00412266
ENCINAL             	TX	USC00412906
FALFURRIAS          	TX	USC00413063
FT STOCKTON         	TX	USC00413280
GAINESVILLE 5 ENE   	TX	USC00413420
GREENVILLE KGVL RADI	TX	USC00413734
HALLETTSVILLE 2 N   	TX	USC00413873
LIBERTY             	TX	USC00415196
LULING              	TX	USC00415429
MARSHALL            	TX	USC00415618
MIAMI               	TX	USC00415875
MULESHOE #1         	TX	USC00416135
NEW BRAUNFELS       	TX	USC00416276
PLAINVIEW           	TX	USC00417079
QUANAH 2 SW         	TX	USC00417336
SEMINOLE            	TX	USC00418201
SNYDER              	TX	USC00418433
STRATFORD           	TX	USC00418692
WEATHERFORD         	TX	USC00419532
ALTON               	UT	USC00420086
BLANDING            	UT	USC00420738
BLUFF               	UT	USC00420788
CORINNE             	UT	USC00421731
DESERET             	UT	USC00422101
DUCHESNE            	UT	USC00422253
ESCALANTE           	UT	USC00422592
FILLMORE            	UT	USC00422828
FT DUCHESNE         	UT	USC00422996
GREEN RIVER AVIATION	UT	USC00423418
HEBER               	UT	USC00423809
KANAB               	UT	USC00424508
LAKETOWN            	UT	USC00424856
LEVAN               	UT	USC00425065
MANTI               	UT	USC00425402
MOAB                	UT	USC00425733
MORGAN POWER   LIGHT	UT	USC00425826
OGDEN PIONEER PH    	UT	USC00426404
PANGUITCH           	UT	USC00426601
PAROWAN             	UT	USC00426686
RICHFIELD RADIO KSVC	UT	USC00427260
ST GEORGE           	UT	USC00427516
SCIPIO              	UT	USC00427714
SNAKE CREEK POWERHOU	UT	USC00427909
SPANISH FORK PWR HOU	UT	USC00428119
THOMPSON            	UT	USC00428705
TOOELE              	UT	USC00428771
UTAH LAKE LEHI      	UT	USC00428973
VERNAL              	UT	USC00429111
WOODRUFF            	UT	USC00429595
ZION NP             	UT	USC00429717
CAVENDISH           	VT	USC00431243
CHELSEA             	VT	USC00431360
CORNWALL            	VT	USC00431580
ENOSBURG FALLS      	VT	USC00432769
SAINT JOHNSBURY     	VT	USC00437054
BLACKSBURG NWSO     	VA	USC00440766
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38 Responses to The Wildly Fraudulent TOBS Temperature Adjustment

  1. Jimmy Haigh says:

    I remember questioning the validity of TOBS years ago on WUWT only to be jumped upon by Mosher.

  2. Micky H Corbett says:

    The TOBS adjustment is another great example of applying hypothesis without test and it has an obvious flaw: user interaction. I’m sure some measurements over consecutive days may show a double accounting but if you include the user observing this then they would adjust the afternoon time to later in the day. You would need the actual time of measurement to even start accessing TOBS.

    However it looks like it’s neglible as you have shown

  3. A C Osborn says:

    The whole point is they apply them to every day when you might, just might, get a few each month in the summer. Like all the other adjustments they make there can be a small technical justification for what they do, but they apply it wholesale to cool the past in line with CO2 and Model output.

  4. Steven Fraser says:

    This is an excellent result, Tony. You have falsified the hypothesis.

  5. TA says:

    Another nail in the CAGW coffin.

  6. Rud Istvan says:

    Nice analysis. TOBS fixed a problem that in reality does not exist in any meaningful way.

  7. richard verney says:

    They should simply retrofit the best sited stations with the same LIG thermometers as used in the 1930s/1940s and then read those thermometers with the same practices as used in the 1930s/1940s (including the same TOBS) at each weather station. The retrofit would go inside the same enclosures as being used today, and the LIG thermometers would be calibrated in Fahrenheit.

    Within a few years (max 5 years) of having this parallel data (ie., along with today’s modern resistance temperature detectors/thermocuple automatic measurements) we would quickly know (i) what today’s raw temperature data is like compared to the 1930/1940s raw temperature data; and (ii) whether today’s modern equipment is reading waarm or cool compared to LIG thermometers.

    Doesn’t the law of large numbers in any event largely get rid of this TOB ‘error’? Whether a day is warm or not at any given time is largely dependent upon cloudiness, or rain, and cloudiness or rain is likely to be random in nature and equally distributed between morning and afternoon.

    • neal s says:

      Nobody who is riding the CAGW train would want this simple test because it would show that the whole TOB is part of the scam.

    • neal s says:

      Sorry meant would NOT want ….

    • phil jones says:

      Exactly. ..

      But… these Hoaxers AREN’T INTERESTED IN THE SCIENCE!! Its more about Politics, Control, Taxes… even a self-hatred of the 1st World Lifestyle, Funding, Grants, Guilt… and FEAR..

      Real Science means continually testing, retesting, and Challenging a Theorem or Hypothesis… Goddard does that… the “Consensus” is overinflated on CO2 as the driver of Climate..

    • cdquarles says:

      No. Each reading is a sample of one. It is representative only of the enclosure, the local air mixture, and the local energy fluxes that may or may not get converted to local kinetic energy. The thermodynamic temperature is the geometric mean of the constituents of the sample’s kinetic energy and *only* the kinetic energy.

      In order to invoke the Law of Large Numbers, you’d need 30 or more identical thermometers sampling the same matter every time. Even then, the thermometer measures the local fluid’s thermal expansion or thermally induced electric potential difference, which is a good, but not exact, proxy for the temperature.

      Also, averages are a description of a set. It isn’t the actual set. You can use the Law of Large Numbers to improve the precision of the estimate, but that does not mean that you can improve the accuracy of the estimate.

      Another failing is the general lack of a detailed error analysis and a proper propagation of them, leading to overconfident statements and a general dampening of the variation.

  8. Steven Fraser says:

    Anyone have a link to a paper that proves TOBS?

  9. Frank Lansner says:

    Absolutely fabolous work Tony!! Extremely important. Thank you.

    K.R. Frank

  10. C. Driscoll says:

    This is fascinating stuff. Is TOBS the only factor in the adjustments or are there others as well that are provable/disprovable?

    Also: is there a way to check temperature adjustments vs. satellite records for the recent years we’ve had satellites?

    • Marty says:

      giss change historical temps based pn what their aglos produce which is why they make hundreds of adjustments to monthly historical data every year

  11. Johnbuk says:

    This is excellent Tony. Many thanks for all your hard work here. Let’s see if any one of the consensus concentrates on the figures you’ve produced or you personally. If the latter then obviously they can’t deal with the former. Thanks again.

  12. Another excellent test. Great post. :)

  13. Ed Bo says:

    The “homogeneity ” adjustments are another can of worms. They purport to catch outliers by comparing them to “good” stations nearby, but it looks like there are so many “bad”stations, contaminated by urban heat island and micro-site issues, that the “good” stations are treated as the outliers and adjusted to match the bad ones.

  14. C. Driscoll says:

    I thought that science was calling bs on everything that was claimed as truth, and making the person asserting it prove it, and testing that. Now there is a false religion called climate science, upon which there is no debate. I am open to Mr. Heller being wrong, but I don’t see the other side willing to show evidence or enter debate as to otherwise. Hence, there is one conclusion I can make. I call bullshit. I want to see a debate of someone with Heller’s mental capacity on the warmist side debating Heller. Point for point.

    • AndyG55 says:

      ” I want to see a debate of someone with Heller’s mental capacity on the warmist side debating Heller”

      1a. You would be lucky if you could find one that wasn’t totally propaganda brain washed.

      1b. You would be lucky if you could find one.

  15. DM says:

    Pls confirm or correct my understanding of TOB influence. The ACTUAL influence is OPPOSITE the adjustment recently made to the temperature record. Per Tony’s charts comparing morning readings with afternoon readings, the morning readings are hotter most days. And, the morning readings yield more days above 90F.

  16. DM says:

    Pls confirm or correct the following understanding. The ACTUAL TOB effect is OPPOSITE the adjustment recently made to the historical temperature record. As per Tony’s charts comparing morning readings with afternoon readings, morning readings are hotter most days. And, morning readings yield more 90+F days.

  17. Zerilos says:

    I’m not sure what the significance of this is? Seems irrelevant to the topic of climate change science.

    • tonyheller says:

      Zero speaks!

    • RAH says:

      In a way your right. But I’m sure that it isn’t the way you intended. Fabricating temperatures to create climate change on paper does not change the real climate a bit. What it does is offer fodder for a change in the political climate.

      But denying that there is fraud while offering not evidence to counter the bloggers supported contention does make your comment have zero credibility.

    • gator69 says:

      Zerilos is correct, this data tampering isn’t climate chnage science, it is fraud. Thanks for pointing this out Ms Z!

  18. Zerilos says:

    To make sure I understand the point of this review of NOAA practices, I need to ask if the author is arguing that there should be no correction for time of day the temperatures were taken. Is he? I’m not a scientist and just trying to understand what I’m reading.

    • AndyG55 says:

      You don’t seem to comprehend that TOBS adjustment is a major adjustment that accounts for nearly ALL the rise in the NOAA temperature fabrication.

      UHI is basically ignored. or treated as of zero consequence, even though they know that it has significant effects on the temperature at a large proportion of surface data station.

      The whole NCDC/NOAA surface temperature, as well as GHCN which feeds into other so-called surface temperature, is a monumental FARCE, based on anti-science agenda-driven adjustments, and data fabrication.

    • Ed Bo says:

      Zerilos:

      Please re-read the original post carefully. Tony explains the issue very well.

      With the “max-min” systems used for a long time, the observer could read the maximum and minimum temperatures that had occurred since the last time these values were reset. These values were recorded by the observer.

      There is a potential issue here. If the observation time were late afternoon, as was common (when the observer got home from work usually), the present temperature was not down much from the peak for the day. Let’s say the peak temperature for the day was 86F (30C), and the temperature at reset was 83F.

      The next day was cooler, only reaching 77F (25C). But if the observer had done nothing since the previous afternoon, the “max” reading would be 83F. This kind of double counting has the potential for inflating temperature readings.

      But those who say this is a real issue have to believe that the volunteer weather enthusiasts (“weather geeks”) who manned these stations did not realize this was a problem, and did not reset the max reading in the morning. The evidence is overwhelming that most of them did.

  19. MrZ says:

    Hi Tony!
    I don’t know if you have time to revisit your old posts for comments. Anyway when in comes to TOBS adjustments I think there is one important factor you have not considered or at least written about.
    The “pro” scientists claims there is a Time of Day bias they can gracefully compensate for, however they fail to mention the bias they generate by calculating daily average as (t_min+t_max)/2 instead of the real average using all readings in a day. I do appreciate they don’t have better resolution for the history data but never the less that bias is there and it impacts how correct TOBS adjustments can be.

    I did a comparison for my Oregon weather station using all measurements I have since 2014 till today. The station is located in Stockholm Sweden.
    NOAA loves averages because they have the power to erase any errors ,-), so looking first at averages for my station this bias mostly increases the monthly average (by upto 0.6C) but it differs by a lot month by month and also between years. When looking day by day it fluctuates dramatically +/- 2C.

    Looking at the stations Tony used, Mexico and Warrenton, NOAA has simply put a TOBS mask depending on the month and time the station was read (7am vs. 5pm for the 1936 example). The same mask is used at least 1932-1940. During this period the bias I mention above will have fluctuated far more than the TOBS figures they use in the mask.

    Let me know if this is of any interest and I can share the readings and graphs in the cloud.

    Matz

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