The Completely Fake Time Of Observation Bias Adjustment

NOAA makes a large adjustment to US temperatures known as the Time of Observation Bias Adjustment (TOB.) Here is their official explanation.


They claim that the adjustment has little effect until 1970, then causes 0.3F warming from 1970 to 1990, and none after 1990.

Applying the Time of Observation adjustment (black line) resulted in approximately a 0.3F warming from the late 1960’s to the 1990’s


Their actual adjustment looks nothing like what their documentation claims. It cools the past in a hockey stick by 0.7F, and it gets steeper after 1990, not flat. Their documentation (like the adjustment) is fake.

The TOBS adjustment turns a hundred year cooling trend into a warming trend, by massively cooling the past.

The theory behind the adjustment is that in the past people tended to reset their min/max thermometers only once per day in the afternoon, causing double counting of hot temperatures from the previous day. Now people tend to reset in the morning, causing double counting of cold days. If it were true, it would be a real problem and would indicate that station operators are complete morons.

Suppose day one is 90 degrees at 4 PM, and a cold front comes through at 5PM and it starts snowing. If the thermometer was reset at 4PM, then the maximum temperature for day 2 would also be recorded as 90 degrees, even though the temperature never got out of the 30s.  This is not a subtle problem. I had a min/max thermometer when I was eight years old, and I recognized the problem after about two days. So I reset the max in the morning, and reset the min in the afternoon – problem solved. I assume that anyone operating a min/max thermometer would come up with a similar solution.

But NOAA assumes that their station operators are idiots and applies their fake TOB adjustment, which is nothing even remotely like their documentation claims it is.

It is simple enough to test if the adjustment is necessary, by simply eliminating any stations which might be at risk. NOAA keeps station histories, and I identified which stations reset their thermometers during the afternoon in 1936, and which ones reset their thermometers in the morning in 1936.

According to NOAA documents, there were 273 stations which reset their thermometers at morning or night during July 1936, and 861 stations which reset their thermometers in the afternoon. I plotted the trends for both groups of stations, and found that the trends were essentially identical. the only difference is that morning stations are warmer, because they are located at lower latitudes than afternoon stations. People tend to be more active in the morning where it is warmer.

What this shows us is that the TOB adjustment is junk science. If TOB was a real problem, the slope of the morning stations would be more positive than the slope of the afternoon stations. This is because morning stations would have been recorded too cold in the past, and afternoon stations would have recorded too hot in the past.

But we don’t see that. The slope for morning and afternoon stations is essentially identical. Instead of doing a simple check like I did, NOAA simply applies their fake adjustment, and then Zeke and Nick write about it proudly on skeptics’ blogs.

Stations used in this analysis :

1936 morning stations
FAIRHOPE 2 NE                 	AL	US	USC00012813
AJO                           	AZ	US	USC00020080
CHILDS                        	AZ	US	USC00021614
DOUGLAS                       	AZ	US	USC00022659
FT VALLEY                     	AZ	US	USC00023160
GRAND CANYON NP 2             	AZ	US	USC00023596
LEES FERRY                    	AZ	US	USC00024849
MESA                          	AZ	US	USC00025467
MIAMI                         	AZ	US	USC00025512
PRESCOTT                      	AZ	US	USC00026796
ROOSEVELT 1 WNW               	AZ	US	USC00027281
SACATON                       	AZ	US	USC00027370
WICKENBURG                    	AZ	US	USC00029287
WILLIAMS                      	AZ	US	USC00029359
YUMA CITRUS STN               	AZ	US	USC00029652
GRAVETTE                      	AR	US	USC00032930
BLYTHE                        	CA	US	USC00040924
CHULA VISTA                   	CA	US	USC00041758
CUYAMACA                      	CA	US	USC00042239
DAVIS 2 WSW EXP FARM          	CA	US	USC00042294
FAIRMONT                      	CA	US	USC00042941
HANFORD 1 S                   	CA	US	USC00043747
HEALDSBURG                    	CA	US	USC00043875
LODI                          	CA	US	USC00045032
MERCED                        	CA	US	USC00045532
ORLEANS                       	CA	US	USC00046508
PASO ROBLES                   	CA	US	USC00046730
QUINCY                        	CA	US	USC00047195
SAN LUIS OBISPO POLY          	CA	US	USC00047851
SUSANVILLE 2SW                	CA	US	USC00048702
TAHOE CITY                    	CA	US	USC00048758
TEJON RANCHO                  	CA	US	USC00048839
TUSTIN IRVINE RCH             	CA	US	USC00049087
WEAVERVILLE                   	CA	US	USC00049490
WILLOWS 6 W                   	CA	US	USC00049699
YREKA                         	CA	US	USC00049866
FT MORGAN                     	CO	US	USC00053038
TRINIDAD                      	CO	US	USC00058429
BARTOW 1SE                    	FL	US	USC00080478
BELLE GLADE                   	FL	US	USC00080611
FT LAUDERDALE                 	FL	US	USC00083163
FT PIERCE                     	FL	US	USC00083207
LAKE CITY 2 E                 	FL	US	USC00084731
MADISON                       	FL	US	USC00085275
OCALA                         	FL	US	USC00086414
PERRINE 4W                    	FL	US	USC00087020
TITUSVILLE                    	FL	US	USC00088942
BLAKELY                       	GA	US	USC00090979
HAWKINSVILLE                  	GA	US	USC00094170
MILLEDGEVILLE                 	GA	US	USC00095874
NEWNAN 7 WNW                  	GA	US	USC00096335
QUITMAN 2 NW                  	GA	US	USC00097276
TIFTON                        	GA	US	USC00098703
W PT                          	GA	US	USC00099291
ARROWROCK DAM                 	ID	US	USC00100448
CAMBRIDGE                     	ID	US	USC00101408
FENN RS                       	ID	US	USC00103143
HOLLISTER                     	ID	US	USC00104295
KELLOGG                       	ID	US	USC00104831
PAYETTE                       	ID	US	USC00106891
SALMON-KSRA                   	ID	US	USC00108080
SHOALS 8 S                    	IN	US	USC00128036
CHARLES CITY                  	IA	US	USC00131402
FRANKFORT DOWNTOWN            	KY	US	USC00153028
ALEXANDRIA                    	LA	US	USC00160098
BASTROP                       	LA	US	USC00160537
PLAIN DEALING                 	LA	US	USC00167344
EASTPORT                      	ME	US	USC00172426
LEWISTON                      	ME	US	USC00174566
WOODLAND                      	ME	US	USC00179891
CUMBERLAND 2                  	MD	US	USC00182282
PRINCESS ANNE                 	MD	US	USC00187330
BLUE HILL                     	MA	US	USC00190736
CLINTON                       	MA	US	USC00191561
GREAT BARRINGTON 2N           	MA	US	USC00193213
LAWRENCE                      	MA	US	USC00194105
PLYMOUTH-KINGSTON             	MA	US	USC00196486
ALLEGAN 5NE                   	MI	US	USC00200128
STAMBAUGH 2SSE                	MI	US	USC00207812
CHASKA                        	MN	US	USC00211465
DETROIT LAKES 1 NNE           	MN	US	USC00212142
NEW ULM 2 SE                  	MN	US	USC00215887
PIPESTONE                     	MN	US	USC00216565
CRYSTAL SPGS EXP STN          	MS	US	USC00222094
GREENVILLE                    	MS	US	USC00223605
NATCHEZ                       	MS	US	USC00226177
PONTOTOC EXP STN              	MS	US	USC00227111
BRUNSWICK                     	MO	US	USC00231037
CARUTHERSVILLE                	MO	US	USC00231364
FARMINGTON                    	MO	US	USC00232809
JEFFERSON CITY WTP            	MO	US	USC00234271
LAMAR 7N                      	MO	US	USC00234705
LEBANON 2W                    	MO	US	USC00234825
LEES SUMMIT REED WR           	MO	US	USC00234850
LEXINGTON 3E                  	MO	US	USC00234904
MEXICO                        	MO	US	USC00235541
MOBERLY                       	MO	US	USC00235671
MTN GROVE 2 N                 	MO	US	USC00235834
UNIONVILLE                    	MO	US	USC00238523
ANACONDA                      	MT	US	USC00240199
FORKS 4 NNE                   	MT	US	USC00243089
FT ASSINIBOINE                	MT	US	USC00243110
HUNTLEY EXP STN               	MT	US	USC00244345
MOCCASIN EXP STN              	MT	US	USC00245761
ALLIANCE 1WNW                 	NE	US	USC00250130
ATKINSON 3SW                  	NE	US	USC00250420
BEATRICE 1N                   	NE	US	USC00250622
BROKEN BOW 2 W                	NE	US	USC00251200
CRETE 4ESE                    	NE	US	USC00252020
FAIRBURY 5S                   	NE	US	USC00252820
FAIRMONT                      	NE	US	USC00252840
HALSEY 2 W                    	NE	US	USC00253540
IMPERIAL                      	NE	US	USC00254110
KIMBALL 2NE                   	NE	US	USC00254440
NORTH LOUP                    	NE	US	USC00256040
SEWARD                        	NE	US	USC00257715
TEKAMAH                       	NE	US	USC00258480
WEEPING WATER                 	NE	US	USC00259090
AUSTIN #2                     	NV	US	USC00260507
FALLON EXP STN                	NV	US	USC00262780
LOVELOCK                      	NV	US	USC00264698
MCGILL                        	NV	US	USC00264950
MINA                          	NV	US	USC00265168
WELLS                         	NV	US	USC00268988
HANOVER                       	NH	US	USC00273850
BOONTON 1 SE                  	NJ	US	USC00280907
MOORESTOWN                    	NJ	US	USC00285728
PLAINFIELD                    	NJ	US	USC00287079
LAS VEGAS WWTP                	NM	US	USC00294862
MTN PARK                      	NM	US	USC00295960
TUCUMCARI 4 NE                	NM	US	USC00299156
TULAROSA                      	NM	US	USC00299165
BAINBRIDGE 2 E                	NY	US	USC00300360
BATAVIA                       	NY	US	USC00300443
CHASM FALLS                   	NY	US	USC00301387
ELMIRA                        	NY	US	USC00302610
GLENHAM                       	NY	US	USC00303259
HEMLOCK                       	NY	US	USC00303773
INDIAN LAKE 2SW               	NY	US	USC00304102
ITHACA CORNELL UNIV           	NY	US	USC00304174
LAKE PLACID 2 S               	NY	US	USC00304555
LITTLE FALLS MILL ST          	NY	US	USC00304796
LOWVILLE                      	NY	US	USC00304912
EMMONS                        	NY	US	USC00305113
OSWEGO E                      	NY	US	USC00306314
PORT JERVIS                   	NY	US	USC00306774
POUGHKEEPSIE                  	NY	US	USC00306820
SCARSDALE                     	NY	US	USC00307497
SETAUKET STRONG               	NY	US	USC00307633
STILLWATER RSVR               	NY	US	USC00308248
TROY L&D                      	NY	US	USC00308600
UTICA                         	NY	US	USC00308739
WALDEN 1 ESE                  	NY	US	USC00308906
WALES                         	NY	US	USC00308910
WEST POINT                    	NY	US	USC00309292
YORKTOWN HTS 1W               	NY	US	USC00309670
KINSTON 7 SE                  	NC	US	USC00314684
LUMBERTON                     	NC	US	USC00315177
TARBORO 1 S                   	NC	US	USC00318500
WAYNESVILLE 1 E               	NC	US	USC00319147
DICKINSON EXP STN             	ND	US	USC00322188
LANGDON EXP FARM              	ND	US	USC00324958
MANDAN EXP STN                	ND	US	USC00325479
NAPOLEON                      	ND	US	USC00326255
NEW ENGLAND                   	ND	US	USC00326315
WILLOW CITY                   	ND	US	USC00329445
FINDLAY WPCC                  	OH	US	USC00332791
GREENVILLE WTP                	OH	US	USC00333375
WAUSEON WTP                   	OH	US	USC00338822
HUGO                          	OK	US	USC00344384
MUTUAL                        	OK	US	USC00346139
BEND                          	OR	US	USC00350694
MC MINNVILLE                  	OR	US	USC00355384
PILOT ROCK 1 SE               	OR	US	USC00356634
RIDDLE                        	OR	US	USC00357169
ROSEBURG KQEN                 	OR	US	USC00357331
FRANKLIN                      	PA	US	USC00363028
JOHNSTOWN                     	PA	US	USC00364385
NEW CASTLE 1 N                	PA	US	USC00366233
PALMERTON                     	PA	US	USC00366689
READING 4 NNW                 	PA	US	USC00367322
RIDGWAY                       	PA	US	USC00367477
STATE COLLEGE                 	PA	US	USC00368449
STROUDSBURG                   	PA	US	USC00368596
WARREN                        	PA	US	USC00369298
CALHOUN FALLS                 	SC	US	USC00381277
CAMDEN 3 W                    	SC	US	USC00381310
CHERAW                        	SC	US	USC00381588
COLUMBIA UNIV OF SC           	SC	US	USC00381944
CONWAY                        	SC	US	USC00381997
DARLINGTON                    	SC	US	USC00382260
GREENWOOD                     	SC	US	USC00383754
KINGSTREE                     	SC	US	USC00384753
ORANGEBURG 2                  	SC	US	USC00386527
SUMMERVILLE 4W                	SC	US	USC00388426
YEMASSEE 1 N                  	SC	US	USC00389469
RAPID CITY 4NW                	SD	US	USC00396947
COPPERHILL                    	TN	US	USC00402024
MURFREESBORO 5 N              	TN	US	USC00406371
NEWPORT 1 NW                  	TN	US	USC00406534
UNION CITY                    	TN	US	USC00409219
ALBANY                        	TX	US	USC00410120
ALICE                         	TX	US	USC00410144
BALLINGER 2 NW                	TX	US	USC00410493
BLANCO                        	TX	US	USC00410832
BOYS RCH                      	TX	US	USC00411000
BRENHAM                       	TX	US	USC00411048
BROWNWOOD 2ENE                	TX	US	USC00411138
CATARINA                      	TX	US	USC00411528
CORSICANA                     	TX	US	USC00412019
CROSBYTON                     	TX	US	USC00412121
DUBLIN 2SE                    	TX	US	USC00412598
EAGLE PASS 3N                 	TX	US	USC00412679
ENCINAL                       	TX	US	USC00412906
FALFURRIAS                    	TX	US	USC00413063
FLATONIA 4SE                  	TX	US	USC00413183
HASKELL                       	TX	US	USC00413992
LAMPASAS                      	TX	US	USC00415018
LLANO                         	TX	US	USC00415272
LULING                        	TX	US	USC00415429
MCCAMEY                       	TX	US	USC00415707
MEXIA                         	TX	US	USC00415869
MIAMI                         	TX	US	USC00415875
MULESHOE #1                   	TX	US	USC00416135
PECOS                         	TX	US	USC00416892
QUANAH 2 SW                   	TX	US	USC00417336
RIO GRANDE CITY               	TX	US	USC00417622
SNYDER                        	TX	US	USC00418433
TEMPLE                        	TX	US	USC00418910
WEATHERFORD                   	TX	US	USC00419532
FT DUCHESNE                   	UT	US	USC00422996
LOGAN UTAH ST UNIV            	UT	US	USC00425186
UTAH LAKE LEHI                	UT	US	USC00428973
NORTHFIELD 3 SSE              	VT	US	USC00435740
CHARLOTTESVILLE 2W            	VA	US	USC00441593
LEXINGTON                     	VA	US	USC00444876
PENNINGTON GAP                	VA	US	USC00446626
ROCKY MT                      	VA	US	USC00447338
STAUNTON WTP                  	VA	US	USC00448062
ABERDEEN                      	WA	US	USC00450008
BLAINE                        	WA	US	USC00450729
CEDAR LAKE                    	WA	US	USC00451233
CLEARBROOK                    	WA	US	USC00451484
ELLENSBURG                    	WA	US	USC00452505
LONG BEACH EXP STN            	WA	US	USC00454748
POMEROY                       	WA	US	USC00456610
PORT ANGELES                  	WA	US	USC00456624
PULLMAN 2 NW                  	WA	US	USC00456789
RAYMOND 2 S                   	WA	US	USC00456914
SUNNYSIDE                     	WA	US	USC00458207
WENATCHEE                     	WA	US	USC00459074
GARY                          	WV	US	USC00463353
PARSONS 1 NE                  	WV	US	USC00466867
PICKENS 4 SSE                 	WV	US	USC00467001
SPENCER                       	WV	US	USC00468384
WILLIAMSON                    	WV	US	USC00469605
OSHKOSH                       	WI	US	USC00476330
GREEN RIVER                   	WY	US	USC00484065
MIDWEST                       	WY	US	USC00486195
NEWCASTLE                     	WY	US	USC00486660
SHERIDAN FLD STN              	WY	US	USC00488160
WORLAND                       	WY	US	USC00489770

1936 Afternoon stations
BREWTON 3 SSE                 	AL	US	USC00011084
GAINESVILLE LOCK              	AL	US	USC00013160
GREENSBORO                    	AL	US	USC00013511
HIGHLAND HOME                 	AL	US	USC00013816
SAINT BERNARD                 	AL	US	USC00017157
SCOTTSBORO                    	AL	US	USC00017304
SELMA                         	AL	US	USC00017366
TALLADEGA                     	AL	US	USC00018024
THOMASVILLE                   	AL	US	USC00018178
TROY                          	AL	US	USC00018323
TUSCALOOSA ACFD               	AL	US	USC00018380
UNION SPRINGS 9 S             	AL	US	USC00018438
VALLEY HEAD                   	AL	US	USC00018469
BUCKEYE                       	AZ	US	USC00021026
CANYON DE CHELLY              	AZ	US	USC00021248
HOLBROOK                      	AZ	US	USC00024089
KINGMAN #2                    	AZ	US	USC00024645
PARKER                        	AZ	US	USC00026250
SAINT JOHNS                   	AZ	US	USC00027435
SELIGMAN                      	AZ	US	USC00027716
TOMBSTONE                     	AZ	US	USC00028619
BRINKLEY                      	AR	US	USC00030936
CONWAY                        	AR	US	USC00031596
CORNING                       	AR	US	USC00031632
EUREKA SPRINGS 3 WNW          	AR	US	USC00032356
MAMMOTH SPRING                	AR	US	USC00034572
MENA                          	AR	US	USC00034756
NEWPORT                       	AR	US	USC00035186
OZARK                         	AR	US	USC00035508
PINE BLUFF                    	AR	US	USC00035754
POCAHONTAS 1                  	AR	US	USC00035820
PRESCOTT 2 NNW                	AR	US	USC00035908
ROHWER 2 NNE                  	AR	US	USC00036253
SUBIACO                       	AR	US	USC00036928
BRAWLEY 2 SW                  	CA	US	USC00041048
CEDARVILLE                    	CA	US	USC00041614
CHICO UNIV FARM               	CA	US	USC00041715
COLFAX                        	CA	US	USC00041912
DEATH VALLEY                  	CA	US	USC00042319
ELECTRA P H                   	CA	US	USC00042728
FT BRAGG 5 N                  	CA	US	USC00043161
HAPPY CAMP RS                 	CA	US	USC00043761
INDIO FIRE STN                	CA	US	USC00044259
LAKE SPAULDING                	CA	US	USC00044713
LEMON COVE                    	CA	US	USC00044890
LIVERMORE                     	CA	US	USC00044997
MARYSVILLE                    	CA	US	USC00045385
MT SHASTA                     	CA	US	USC00045983
NAPA STATE HOSPITAL           	CA	US	USC00046074
OJAI                          	CA	US	USC00046399
PASADENA                      	CA	US	USC00046719
PETALUMA AIRPORT              	CA	US	USC00046826
REDLANDS                      	CA	US	USC00047306
SANTA BARBARA                 	CA	US	USC00047902
SANTA CRUZ                    	CA	US	USC00047916
SANTA ROSA                    	CA	US	USC00047965
UKIAH                         	CA	US	USC00049122
VACAVILLE                     	CA	US	USC00049200
WASCO                         	CA	US	USC00049452
WEAVERVILLE                   	CA	US	USC00049490
YOSEMITE PARK HQ              	CA	US	USC00049855
BOULDER                       	CO	US	USC00050848
CANON CITY                    	CO	US	USC00051294
CHEESMAN                      	CO	US	USC00051528
CHEYENNE WELLS                	CO	US	USC00051564
COLLBRAN                      	CO	US	USC00051741
DEL NORTE 3ENE                	CO	US	USC00052184
DILLON 1 E                    	CO	US	USC00052281
EADS                          	CO	US	USC00052446
FRUITA                        	CO	US	USC00053146
GUNNISON 3SW                  	CO	US	USC00053662
HERMIT 7 ESE                  	CO	US	USC00053951
HOLLY                         	CO	US	USC00054076
LAMAR                         	CO	US	USC00054770
LAS ANIMAS                    	CO	US	USC00054834
MANASSA                       	CO	US	USC00055322
MONTROSE #2                   	CO	US	USC00055722
ROCKY FORD 2 SE               	CO	US	USC00057167
SAGUACHE                      	CO	US	USC00057337
STEAMBOAT SPRINGS             	CO	US	USC00057936
TELLURIDE 4WNW                	CO	US	USC00058204
TRINIDAD                      	CO	US	USC00058429
WRAY                          	CO	US	USC00059243
FALLS VILLAGE                 	CT	US	USC00062658
GROTON                        	CT	US	USC00063207
STAMFORD 5 N                  	CT	US	USC00067970
STORRS                        	CT	US	USC00068138
DOVER                         	DE	US	USC00072730
GREENWOOD 2NE                 	DE	US	USC00073595
MILFORD 2 SE                  	DE	US	USC00075915
ARCADIA                       	FL	US	USC00080228
DE FUNIAK SPRINGS 1 E         	FL	US	USC00082220
EVERGLADES                    	FL	US	USC00082850
FEDERAL PT                    	FL	US	USC00082915
FERNANDINA BEACH              	FL	US	USC00082944
INVERNESS 3 SE                	FL	US	USC00084289
SAINT LEO                     	FL	US	USC00087851
ALBANY 3 SE                   	GA	US	USC00090140
BRUNSWICK                     	GA	US	USC00091340
COVINGTON                     	GA	US	USC00092318
DAHLONEGA 4WSW                	GA	US	USC00092475
GAINESVILLE                   	GA	US	USC00093621
GLENNVILLE 3NW                	GA	US	USC00093754
MILLEN 4 N                    	GA	US	USC00095882
ROME                          	GA	US	USC00097600
TALBOTTON                     	GA	US	USC00098535
TOCCOA                        	GA	US	USC00098740
WARRENTON                     	GA	US	USC00099141
WASHINGTON 2 ESE              	GA	US	USC00099157
WAYCROSS 4 NE                 	GA	US	USC00099186
ABERDEEN EXP STN              	ID	US	USC00100010
ASHTON 1N                     	ID	US	USC00100470
CALDWELL                      	ID	US	USC00101380
CHALLIS                       	ID	US	USC00101663
GLENNS FERRY                  	ID	US	USC00103631
GRACE                         	ID	US	USC00103732
HAZELTON                      	ID	US	USC00104140
JEROME                        	ID	US	USC00104670
KETCHUM RS                    	ID	US	USC00104845
LIFTON PUMPING STN            	ID	US	USC00105275
MACKAY LOST RVR RS            	ID	US	USC00105462
MOSCOW U OF I                 	ID	US	USC00106152
NEW MEADOWS RS                	ID	US	USC00106388
OAKLEY                        	ID	US	USC00106542
PORTHILL                      	ID	US	USC00107264
PRIEST RVR EXP STN            	ID	US	USC00107386
SANDPOINT EXP STN             	ID	US	USC00108137
ALEDO                         	IL	US	USC00110072
ANNA 2 NNE                    	IL	US	USC00110187
AURORA                        	IL	US	USC00110338
CARLINVILLE                   	IL	US	USC00111280
CHARLESTON                    	IL	US	USC00111436
DANVILLE                      	IL	US	USC00112140
DECATUR WTP                   	IL	US	USC00112193
DIXON 1W                      	IL	US	USC00112348
DU QUOIN 4 SE                 	IL	US	USC00112483
GALVA                         	IL	US	USC00113335
GRIGGSVILLE                   	IL	US	USC00113717
HARRISBURG                    	IL	US	USC00113879
HILLSBORO                     	IL	US	USC00114108
HOOPESTON                     	IL	US	USC00114198
JACKSONVILLE 2E               	IL	US	USC00114442
LA HARPE                      	IL	US	USC00114823
LINCOLN                       	IL	US	USC00115079
MARENGO                       	IL	US	USC00115326
MCLEANSBORO                   	IL	US	USC00115515
MINONK                        	IL	US	USC00115712
MONMOUTH                      	IL	US	USC00115768
MORRISON                      	IL	US	USC00115833
MT CARROLL                    	IL	US	USC00115901
MT VERNON 3 NE                	IL	US	USC00115943
OLNEY 2S                      	IL	US	USC00116446
OTTAWA 5SW                    	IL	US	USC00116526
PALESTINE                     	IL	US	USC00116558
PANA                          	IL	US	USC00116579
PARIS STP                     	IL	US	USC00116610
PONTIAC                       	IL	US	USC00116910
RUSHVILLE 4NE                 	IL	US	USC00117551
SPARTA 1 W                    	IL	US	USC00118147
CHAMPAIGN 3S                  	IL	US	USC00118740
WALNUT                        	IL	US	USC00118916
WHITE HALL 1 E                	IL	US	USC00119241
WINDSOR                       	IL	US	USC00119354
ANDERSON SEWAGE PLT           	IN	US	USC00120177
ANGOLA                        	IN	US	USC00120200
BERNE WWTP                    	IN	US	USC00120676
BROOKVILLE                    	IN	US	USC00121030
CAMBRIDGE CITY 3 N            	IN	US	USC00121229
CHARLESTOWN 5 NNW             	IN	US	USC00121425
COLUMBUS                      	IN	US	USC00121747
CRAWFORDSVILLE 6 SE           	IN	US	USC00121873
DELPHI 2 N                    	IN	US	USC00122149
GOSHEN 3SW                    	IN	US	USC00123418
GREENCASTLE 1 W               	IN	US	USC00123513
GREENFIELD                    	IN	US	USC00123527
HOBART 2 WNW                  	IN	US	USC00124008
HUNTINGTON                    	IN	US	USC00124181
LAPORTE                       	IN	US	USC00124837
MADISON SEWAGE PLT            	IN	US	USC00125237
MARION 2 N                    	IN	US	USC00125337
MT VERNON                     	IN	US	USC00126001
OOLITIC PURDUE EX FM          	IN	US	USC00126580
PAOLI                         	IN	US	USC00126705
PRINCETON 1 W                 	IN	US	USC00127125
RENSSELAER                    	IN	US	USC00127298
ROCHESTER                     	IN	US	USC00127482
ROCKVILLE                     	IN	US	USC00127522
RUSHVILLE                     	IN	US	USC00127646
SALEM                         	IN	US	USC00127755
SCOTTSBURG                    	IN	US	USC00127875
SEYMOUR 2 N                   	IN	US	USC00127935
VEVAY                         	IN	US	USC00129080
VINCENNES 5 NE                	IN	US	USC00129113
WASHINGTON 1 W                	IN	US	USC00129253
WHEATFIELD                    	IN	US	USC00129511
WHITESTOWN                    	IN	US	USC00129557
WINAMAC 2SSE                  	IN	US	USC00129670
ALBIA 3 NNE                   	IA	US	USC00130112
ALGONA 3 W                    	IA	US	USC00130133
BELLE PLAINE                  	IA	US	USC00130600
CLARINDA                      	IA	US	USC00131533
CLINTON #1                    	IA	US	USC00131635
ESTHERVILLE 4E                	IA	US	USC00132724
FAIRFIELD                     	IA	US	USC00132789
FAYETTE                       	IA	US	USC00132864
FT DODGE 5NNW                 	IA	US	USC00132999
INDIANOLA 2W                  	IA	US	USC00134063
IOWA FALLS                    	IA	US	USC00134142
LE MARS                       	IA	US	USC00134735
LOGAN                         	IA	US	USC00134894
MT AYR                        	IA	US	USC00135769
MT PLEASANT 1 SSW             	IA	US	USC00135796
NEW HAMPTON                   	IA	US	USC00135952
ROCK RAPIDS                   	IA	US	USC00137147
ROCKWELL CITY                 	IA	US	USC00137161
STORM LAKE                    	IA	US	USC00137979
TOLEDO 3N                     	IA	US	USC00138296
WASHINGTON                    	IA	US	USC00138688
ASHLAND                       	KS	US	USC00140365
ATCHISON                      	KS	US	USC00140405
COLDWATER                     	KS	US	USC00141704
COLUMBUS                      	KS	US	USC00141740
EL DORADO                     	KS	US	USC00142401
ELLSWORTH                     	KS	US	USC00142459
ESKRIDGE                      	KS	US	USC00142602
FT SCOTT                      	KS	US	USC00142835
HAYS 1 S                      	KS	US	USC00143527
HORTON                        	KS	US	USC00143810
INDEPENDENCE                  	KS	US	USC00143954
JETMORE 8NNW                  	KS	US	USC00144087
LAKIN                         	KS	US	USC00144464
LARNED                        	KS	US	USC00144530
LAWRENCE                      	KS	US	USC00144559
LEAVENWORTH                   	KS	US	USC00144588
LIBERAL                       	KS	US	USC00144695
MANHATTAN                     	KS	US	USC00144972
MCPHERSON                     	KS	US	USC00145152
MEDICINE LODGE                	KS	US	USC00145173
MINNEAPOLIS                   	KS	US	USC00145363
NORTON 9SSE                   	KS	US	USC00145856
OBERLIN                       	KS	US	USC00145906
OLATHE 3E                     	KS	US	USC00145972
OTTAWA                        	KS	US	USC00146128
PHILLIPSBURG 1 SSE            	KS	US	USC00146374
SAINT FRANCIS                 	KS	US	USC00147093
SCOTT CITY                    	KS	US	USC00147271
SEDAN                         	KS	US	USC00147305
WAKEENEY                      	KS	US	USC00148495
ASHLAND                       	KY	US	USC00150254
BEREA COLLEGE                 	KY	US	USC00150619
CAVE RUN  LAKE                	KY	US	USC00152791
GREENSBURG                    	KY	US	USC00153430
HOPKINSVILLE                  	KY	US	USC00153994
LEITCHFIELD 2 N               	KY	US	USC00154703
SHELBYVILLE 1 E               	KY	US	USC00157324
WILLIAMSBURG                  	KY	US	USC00158709
WILLIAMSTOWN                  	KY	US	USC00158714
AMITE                         	LA	US	USC00160205
BUNKIE                        	LA	US	USC00161287
CALHOUN RSCH STN              	LA	US	USC00161411
COVINGTON 4 NNW               	LA	US	USC00162151
DONALDSONVILLE 4 SW           	LA	US	USC00162534
FRANKLIN 3 NW                 	LA	US	USC00163313
GRAND COTEAU                  	LA	US	USC00163800
HOUMA                         	LA	US	USC00164407
JENNINGS                      	LA	US	USC00164700
ST JOSEPH 3 N                 	LA	US	USC00168163
THIBODAUX 4 SE                	LA	US	USC00169013
WINNSBORO 5 SSE               	LA	US	USC00169806
ACADIA NP                     	ME	US	USC00170100
FARMINGTON                    	ME	US	USC00172765
GARDINER                      	ME	US	USC00173046
HOULTON 5N                    	ME	US	USC00173944
MILLINOCKET                   	ME	US	USC00175304
ORONO                         	ME	US	USC00176430
PRESQUE ISLE                  	ME	US	USC00176937
RIPOGENUS DAM                 	ME	US	USC00177174
CHESTERTOWN                   	MD	US	USC00181750
COLLEGE PARK                  	MD	US	USC00181995
DENTON 2 E                    	MD	US	USC00182523
GLENN DALE BELL STN           	MD	US	USC00183675
LAUREL 3 W                    	MD	US	USC00185111
MILLINGTON 1 SE               	MD	US	USC00185985
OAKLAND 1 SE                  	MD	US	USC00186620
PATUXENT RIVER                	MD	US	USC00186915
ROYAL OAK 2 SSW               	MD	US	USC00187806
SALISBURY                     	MD	US	USC00188000
WESTMINSTER                   	MD	US	USC00189440
WOODSTOCK                     	MD	US	USC00189750
CHESTNUT HILL                 	MA	US	USC00191447
FRAMINGHAM                    	MA	US	USC00192975
NEW BEDFORD                   	MA	US	USC00195246
PROVINCETOWN                  	MA	US	USC00196681
TAUNTON                       	MA	US	USC00198367
ADRIAN 2 NNE                  	MI	US	USC00200032
ALMA                          	MI	US	USC00200146
ANN ARBOR U OF MICH           	MI	US	USC00200230
BIG RAPIDS WTR WKS            	MI	US	USC00200779
CHATHAM EXP FARM 2            	MI	US	USC00201486
CHEBOYGAN                     	MI	US	USC00201492
COLDWATER ST SCHOOL           	MI	US	USC00201675
EAST TAWAS                    	MI	US	USC00202423
FAYETTE 4 SW                  	MI	US	USC00202737
HART 3 WSW                    	MI	US	USC00203632
HILLSDALE                     	MI	US	USC00203823
IRONWOOD                      	MI	US	USC00204104
MIDLAND                       	MI	US	USC00205434
MUNISING                      	MI	US	USC00205690
OWOSSO WWTP                   	MI	US	USC00206300
S HAVEN                       	MI	US	USC00207690
STAMBAUGH 2SSE                	MI	US	USC00207812
ADA                           	MN	US	USC00210018
ALBERT LEA 3 SE               	MN	US	USC00210075
BAUDETTE                      	MN	US	USC00210515
CLOQUET                       	MN	US	USC00211630
EVELETH WWTP                  	MN	US	USC00212645
FAIRMONT                      	MN	US	USC00212698
FARMINGTON 3 NW               	MN	US	USC00212737
FOSSTON 1 E                   	MN	US	USC00212916
GRAND MEADOW                  	MN	US	USC00213290
HALLOCK                       	MN	US	USC00213455
ITASCA UNIV OF MINN           	MN	US	USC00214106
LEECH LAKE                    	MN	US	USC00214652
MILAN 1 NW                    	MN	US	USC00215400
MONTEVIDEO 1 SW               	MN	US	USC00215563
MORA                          	MN	US	USC00215615
OLIVIA 3E                     	MN	US	USC00216152
PINE RVR DAM                  	MN	US	USC00216547
POKEGAMA DAM                  	MN	US	USC00216612
ROSEAU                        	MN	US	USC00217087
ST PETER                      	MN	US	USC00217405
SANDY LAKE DAM LIBBY          	MN	US	USC00217460
TWO HARBORS                   	MN	US	USC00218419
WALKER                        	MN	US	USC00218618
WINNEBAGO                     	MN	US	USC00219046
WINNIBIGOSHISH DAM            	MN	US	USC00219059
ZUMBROTA                      	MN	US	USC00219249
ABERDEEN                      	MS	US	USC00220021
BATESVILLE 2 SW               	MS	US	USC00220488
BOONEVILLE                    	MS	US	USC00220955
BROOKHAVEN CITY               	MS	US	USC00221094
CANTON 4N                     	MS	US	USC00221389
CLARKSDALE                    	MS	US	USC00221707
COLUMBIA                      	MS	US	USC00221865
COLUMBUS                      	MS	US	USC00221880
CORINTH 7 SW                  	MS	US	USC00221962
CRYSTAL SPGS EXP STN          	MS	US	USC00222094
FOREST                        	MS	US	USC00223107
HATTIESBURG 5SW               	MS	US	USC00223887
HERNANDO                      	MS	US	USC00223975
HOLLY SPRINGS 4 N             	MS	US	USC00224173
LAUREL                        	MS	US	USC00224939
LOUISVILLE                    	MS	US	USC00225247
MONTICELLO                    	MS	US	USC00225987
MOORHEAD                      	MS	US	USC00226009
PASCAGOULA 3 NE               	MS	US	USC00226718
POPLARVILLE EXP STN           	MS	US	USC00227128
PORT GIBSON 1 NE              	MS	US	USC00227132
STATE UNIV                    	MS	US	USC00228374
UNIVERSITY                    	MS	US	USC00229079
WATER VALLEY                  	MS	US	USC00229400
WAVELAND                      	MS	US	USC00229426
WAYNESBORO 2 W                	MS	US	USC00229439
WOODVILLE 4 ESE               	MS	US	USC00229793
YAZOO CITY 5 NNE              	MS	US	USC00229860
APPLETON CITY                 	MO	US	USC00230204
BOWLING GREEN 1 E             	MO	US	USC00230856
BRUNSWICK                     	MO	US	USC00231037
CARUTHERSVILLE                	MO	US	USC00231364
CLINTON                       	MO	US	USC00231711
CONCEPTION                    	MO	US	USC00231822
DONIPHAN                      	MO	US	USC00232289
LOCKWOOD                      	MO	US	USC00235027
MARBLE HILL                   	MO	US	USC00235253
MTN GROVE 2 N                 	MO	US	USC00235834
NEOSHO                        	MO	US	USC00235976
ROLLA MISSOURI S&T            	MO	US	USC00237263
SPICKARD 7 W                  	MO	US	USC00237963
STEFFENVILLE                  	MO	US	USC00238051
SWEET SPRINGS                 	MO	US	USC00238223
TRUMAN DAM & RSVR             	MO	US	USC00238466
WARRENTON 1 N                 	MO	US	USC00238725
AUGUSTA                       	MT	US	USC00240364
BIG TIMBER                    	MT	US	USC00240780
CASCADE 5 S                   	MT	US	USC00241552
CHINOOK                       	MT	US	USC00241722
CHOTEAU                       	MT	US	USC00241737
CROW AGENCY                   	MT	US	USC00242112
EKALAKA                       	MT	US	USC00242689
ENNIS                         	MT	US	USC00242793
FLATWILLOW 4 ENE              	MT	US	USC00243013
FORKS 4 NNE                   	MT	US	USC00243089
FORTINE 1 N                   	MT	US	USC00243139
GLENDIVE                      	MT	US	USC00243581
HAMILTON                      	MT	US	USC00243885
HAUGAN 1 W                    	MT	US	USC00243984
HEBGEN DAM                    	MT	US	USC00244038
JORDAN                        	MT	US	USC00244522
LIBBY 1 NE RS                 	MT	US	USC00245015
LIVINGSTON 12 S               	MT	US	USC00245080
MALTA 7 E                     	MT	US	USC00245338
MEDICINE LAKE 3 SE            	MT	US	USC00245572
MILDRED 5 N                   	MT	US	USC00245668
PHILIPSBURG RS                	MT	US	USC00246472
PLEVNA                        	MT	US	USC00246601
POPLAR 2 E                    	MT	US	USC00246660
RED LODGE                     	MT	US	USC00246918
SAINT IGNATIUS                	MT	US	USC00247286
SAVAGE                        	MT	US	USC00247382
VALIER                        	MT	US	USC00248501
VIRGINIA CITY                 	MT	US	USC00248597
WEST YELLOWSTONE              	MT	US	USC00248857
ALBION                        	NE	US	USC00250070
ASHLAND NO 2                  	NE	US	USC00250375
AUBURN 5 ESE                  	NE	US	USC00250435
BEAVER CITY                   	NE	US	USC00250640
BRIDGEPORT                    	NE	US	USC00251145
CRETE 4ESE                    	NE	US	USC00252020
CURTIS 3NNE                   	NE	US	USC00252100
DAVID CITY                    	NE	US	USC00252205
FRANKLIN                      	NE	US	USC00253035
GENEVA                        	NE	US	USC00253175
GENOA 2 W                     	NE	US	USC00253185
GOTHENBURG                    	NE	US	USC00253365
HARRISON                      	NE	US	USC00253615
HARTINGTON                    	NE	US	USC00253630
HASTINGS 4N                   	NE	US	USC00253660
HAY SPRINGS 12 S              	NE	US	USC00253715
HEBRON                        	NE	US	USC00253735
HOLDREGE                      	NE	US	USC00253910
KIMBALL 2NE                   	NE	US	USC00254440
LODGEPOLE                     	NE	US	USC00254900
LOUP CITY                     	NE	US	USC00254985
MADISON                       	NE	US	USC00255080
MC COOK                       	NE	US	USC00255310
MERRIMAN                      	NE	US	USC00255470
MINDEN                        	NE	US	USC00255565
PAWNEE CITY                   	NE	US	USC00256570
PURDUM                        	NE	US	USC00256970
RED CLOUD                     	NE	US	USC00257070
SAINT PAUL                    	NE	US	USC00257515
SYRACUSE                      	NE	US	USC00258395
TECUMSEH 1S                   	NE	US	USC00258465
TEKAMAH                       	NE	US	USC00258480
WAKEFIELD                     	NE	US	USC00258915
YORK                          	NE	US	USC00259510
BOULDER CITY                  	NV	US	USC00261071
GOLCONDA                      	NV	US	USC00263245
SEARCHLIGHT                   	NV	US	USC00267369
BETHLEHEM                     	NH	US	USC00270703
DURHAM                        	NH	US	USC00272174
KEENE                         	NH	US	USC00274399
BELVIDERE BRG                 	NJ	US	USC00280734
FLEMINGTON 5 NNW              	NJ	US	USC00283029
HIGHTSTOWN 2 W                	NJ	US	USC00283951
INDIAN MILLS 2 W              	NJ	US	USC00284229
NEW BRUNSWICK 3 SE            	NJ	US	USC00286055
TUCKERTON 2 NE                	NJ	US	USC00288899
AZTEC RUINS NM                	NM	US	USC00290692
BELL RANCH                    	NM	US	USC00290858
CARLSBAD                      	NM	US	USC00291469
CARRIZOZO 1SW                 	NM	US	USC00291515
CHAMA                         	NM	US	USC00291664
CIMARRON 4 SW                 	NM	US	USC00291813
ELEPHANT BUTTE DAM            	NM	US	USC00292848
FT BAYARD                     	NM	US	USC00293265
FT SUMNER                     	NM	US	USC00293294
GAGE                          	NM	US	USC00293368
JEMEZ SPRINGS                 	NM	US	USC00294369
JORNADA EXP RANGE             	NM	US	USC00294426
LOS LUNAS 3 SSW               	NM	US	USC00295150
LUNA RS                       	NM	US	USC00295273
MOUNTAINAIR                   	NM	US	USC00295965
OROGRANDE                     	NM	US	USC00296435
RED RIVER                     	NM	US	USC00297323
SAN JON                       	NM	US	USC00297867
SANTA ROSA                    	NM	US	USC00298107
SOCORRO                       	NM	US	USC00298387
SPRINGER                      	NM	US	USC00298501
STATE UNIV                    	NM	US	USC00298535
ALFRED                        	NY	US	USC00300085
ALLEGANY SP                   	NY	US	USC00300093
ANGELICA                      	NY	US	USC00300183
AUBURN                        	NY	US	USC00300321
BAINBRIDGE 2 E                	NY	US	USC00300360
BATH                          	NY	US	USC00300448
BRIDGEHAMPTON                 	NY	US	USC00300889
BROCKPORT                     	NY	US	USC00300937
CHAZY                         	NY	US	USC00301401
COOPERSTOWN                   	NY	US	USC00301752
CORTLAND                      	NY	US	USC00301799
DANNEMORA                     	NY	US	USC00301966
DANSVILLE                     	NY	US	USC00301974
FREDONIA                      	NY	US	USC00303033
GENEVA RSCH FARM              	NY	US	USC00303184
GLOVERSVILLE                  	NY	US	USC00303319
LAWRENCEVILLE 3 SW            	NY	US	USC00304647
LOCKPORT                      	NY	US	USC00304844
MOHONK LAKE                   	NY	US	USC00305426
MORRISVILLE 6 SW              	NY	US	USC00305512
NORWICH                       	NY	US	USC00306085
OGDENSBURG 4 NE               	NY	US	USC00306164
PENN YAN 8 W                  	NY	US	USC00306517
SARATOGA SPRINGS 4 SW         	NY	US	USC00307484
WATERTOWN                     	NY	US	USC00309000
ALBEMARLE                     	NC	US	USC00310090
BANNER ELK                    	NC	US	USC00310506
CHAPEL HILL 2 W               	NC	US	USC00311677
EDENTON                       	NC	US	USC00312635
ELIZABETH CITY                	NC	US	USC00312719
FAYETTEVILLE (PWC)            	NC	US	USC00313017
HENDERSON 2 NNW               	NC	US	USC00313969
HENDERSONVILLE 1 NE           	NC	US	USC00313976
HIGHLANDS                     	NC	US	USC00314055
KINSTON 7 SE                  	NC	US	USC00314684
LENOIR                        	NC	US	USC00314938
LOUISBURG                     	NC	US	USC00315123
MARION                        	NC	US	USC00315340
MARSHALL                      	NC	US	USC00315356
MONROE 2 SE                   	NC	US	USC00315771
MOREHEAD CITY 2 WNW           	NC	US	USC00315830
MORGANTON                     	NC	US	USC00315838
MT AIRY 2 W                   	NC	US	USC00315890
REIDSVILLE 2 NW               	NC	US	USC00317202
SALISBURY                     	NC	US	USC00317615
SMITHFIELD                    	NC	US	USC00317994
SOUTHPORT 5 N                 	NC	US	USC00318113
STATESVILLE 2 NNE             	NC	US	USC00318292
WILSON 3 SW                   	NC	US	USC00319476
BOTTINEAU                     	ND	US	USC00320941
FT YATES 4 SW                 	ND	US	USC00323207
FULLERTON 1 ESE               	ND	US	USC00323287
GRAFTON                       	ND	US	USC00323594
GRAND FORKS UNIV (NWS)        	ND	US	USC00323621
HETTINGER                     	ND	US	USC00324178
HILLSBORO 3 N                 	ND	US	USC00324203
MAYVILLE                      	ND	US	USC00325660
MOFFIT 3 SE                   	ND	US	USC00326015
MOTT                          	ND	US	USC00326155
RICHARDTON ABBEY              	ND	US	USC00327530
TOWNER 2 NE                   	ND	US	USC00328792
WAHPETON 3 N                  	ND	US	USC00329100
BUCYRUS                       	OH	US	USC00331072
CADIZ                         	OH	US	USC00331152
CHIPPEWA LAKE                 	OH	US	USC00331541
CIRCLEVILLE                   	OH	US	USC00331592
COSHOCTON WPC PLT             	OH	US	USC00331890
DELAWARE                      	OH	US	USC00332119
GREENVILLE WTP                	OH	US	USC00333375
HILLSBORO                     	OH	US	USC00333758
HIRAM                         	OH	US	USC00333780
KENTON                        	OH	US	USC00334189
MC CONNELLSVILLE LK 7         	OH	US	USC00335041
MILLERSBURG                   	OH	US	USC00335297
MILLPORT 4 NE                 	OH	US	USC00335315
NAPOLEON                      	OH	US	USC00335669
NORWALK WWTP                  	OH	US	USC00336118
OBERLIN                       	OH	US	USC00336196
PHILO 3 SW                    	OH	US	USC00336600
TIFFIN                        	OH	US	USC00338313
UPPER SANDUSKY                	OH	US	USC00338534
URBANA WWTP                   	OH	US	USC00338552
WARREN 3 S                    	OH	US	USC00338769
WAUSEON WTP                   	OH	US	USC00338822
WAVERLY                       	OH	US	USC00338830
WOOSTER EXP STATION           	OH	US	USC00339312
ADA                           	OK	US	USC00340017
ALTUS IRIG RSCH STN           	OK	US	USC00340179
ANTLERS                       	OK	US	USC00340256
ARDMORE                       	OK	US	USC00340292
BEAVER                        	OK	US	USC00340593
BOISE CITY 2 E                	OK	US	USC00340908
BUFFALO 2 SSW                 	OK	US	USC00341243
CARNEGIE 5 NE                 	OK	US	USC00341504
CHEROKEE 4W                   	OK	US	USC00341724
CLAREMORE 2 ENE               	OK	US	USC00341828
DURANT                        	OK	US	USC00342678
ENID                          	OK	US	USC00342912
ERICK                         	OK	US	USC00342944
GEARY                         	OK	US	USC00343497
GOODWELL RSCH STN             	OK	US	USC00343628
GUTHRIE 5S                    	OK	US	USC00343821
HAMMON 3 SSW                  	OK	US	USC00343871
HENNESSEY 4 ESE               	OK	US	USC00344055
HOLDENVILLE 2SSE              	OK	US	USC00344235
HOOKER                        	OK	US	USC00344298
HUGO                          	OK	US	USC00344384
JEFFERSON                     	OK	US	USC00344573
KENTON                        	OK	US	USC00344766
KINGFISHER                    	OK	US	USC00344861
LAWTON                        	OK	US	USC00345063
MANGUM                        	OK	US	USC00345509
MEEKER 5 W                    	OK	US	USC00345779
MIAMI                         	OK	US	USC00345855
MUSKOGEE                      	OK	US	USC00346130
MUTUAL                        	OK	US	USC00346139
NEWKIRK 5NE                   	OK	US	USC00346278
OKEENE                        	OK	US	USC00346629
OKEMAH                        	OK	US	USC00346638
OKMULGEE WTR WKS              	OK	US	USC00346670
PAULS VALLEY 4 WSW            	OK	US	USC00346926
PAWHUSKA                      	OK	US	USC00346935
PERRY                         	OK	US	USC00347012
POTEAU WTR WKS                	OK	US	USC00347254
STILLWATER 2 W                	OK	US	USC00348501
TAHLEQUAH                     	OK	US	USC00348677
WAURIKA                       	OK	US	USC00349395
WEATHERFORD                   	OK	US	USC00349422
WEBBERS FALLS 5 WSW           	OK	US	USC00349445
ASHLAND                       	OR	US	USC00350304
BLY 3 NW                      	OR	US	USC00350854
CASCADIA                      	OR	US	USC00351433
COTTAGE GROVE 2E              	OR	US	USC00351897
CRATER LAKE NPS HQ            	OR	US	USC00351946
DANNER                        	OR	US	USC00352135
DUFUR                         	OR	US	USC00352440
FOREST GROVE                  	OR	US	USC00352997
FREMONT 5 NW                  	OR	US	USC00353095
GRANTS PASS                   	OR	US	USC00353445
HERMISTON 1 SE                	OR	US	USC00353847
HOOD RVR EXP STN              	OR	US	USC00354003
KLAMATH FALLS 2 SSW           	OR	US	USC00354506
LAKEVIEW 2 NNW                	OR	US	USC00354670
MCKENZIE BRG RS               	OR	US	USC00355362
MC MINNVILLE                  	OR	US	USC00355384
MILTON FREEWATER              	OR	US	USC00355593
MORO                          	OR	US	USC00355734
PAISLEY                       	OR	US	USC00356426
PRINEVILLE                    	OR	US	USC00356883
PROSPECT 2 SW                 	OR	US	USC00356907
RIDDLE                        	OR	US	USC00357169
THREE LYNX                    	OR	US	USC00358466
TILLAMOOK                     	OR	US	USC00358494
UNION EXP STN                 	OR	US	USC00358746
VALE                          	OR	US	USC00358797
WALLOWA                       	OR	US	USC00358997
CHAMBERSBURG 1 ESE            	PA	US	USC00361354
EISENHOWER NHS                	PA	US	USC00362537
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MONTROSE                      	PA	US	USC00365915
SELINSGROVE 2 S               	PA	US	USC00367931
TOWANDA 1 S                   	PA	US	USC00368905
UNIONTOWN 1 NE                	PA	US	USC00369050
WELLSBORO 4 SW                	PA	US	USC00369408
W CHESTER 2 NW                	PA	US	USC00369464
YORK 3 SSW PUMP STN           	PA	US	USC00369933
KINGSTON                      	RI	US	USC00374266
AIKEN 5SE                     	SC	US	USC00380074
ANDERSON                      	SC	US	USC00380165
BEAUFORT WWTP                 	SC	US	USC00380559
BLACKVILLE 3 W                	SC	US	USC00380764
CLEMSON UNIV                  	SC	US	USC00381770
GEORGETOWN 2 E                	SC	US	USC00383468
KERSHAW 1SW                   	SC	US	USC00384690
LAURENS                       	SC	US	USC00385017
LITTLE MTN                    	SC	US	USC00385200
NEWBERRY                      	SC	US	USC00386209
SALUDA                        	SC	US	USC00387631
SANTUCK                       	SC	US	USC00387722
SUMTER                        	SC	US	USC00388440
WALHALLA                      	SC	US	USC00388887
WINNSBORO                     	SC	US	USC00389327
WINTHROP UNIV                 	SC	US	USC00389350
ACADEMY 2NE                   	SD	US	USC00390043
ALEXANDRIA                    	SD	US	USC00390128
CANTON                        	SD	US	USC00391392
CLARK                         	SD	US	USC00391739
COTTONWOOD 2 E                	SD	US	USC00391972
DUPREE                        	SD	US	USC00392429
EUREKA                        	SD	US	USC00392797
FAULKTON 1 NW                 	SD	US	USC00392927
FORESTBURG 4 NNE              	SD	US	USC00393029
GANN VALLEY 4NW               	SD	US	USC00393217
HIGHMORE 1 W                  	SD	US	USC00393832
HOT SPRINGS                   	SD	US	USC00394007
HOWARD                        	SD	US	USC00394037
KENNEBEC                      	SD	US	USC00394516
MELLETTE 4 W                  	SD	US	USC00395456
MENNO                         	SD	US	USC00395481
MILBANK 4 NW                  	SD	US	USC00395536
MURDO                         	SD	US	USC00395891
OAHE DAM                      	SD	US	USC00396170
VERMILLION 2 SE               	SD	US	USC00398622
WOOD                          	SD	US	USC00399442
CLARKSVILLE WWTP              	TN	US	USC00401790
COVINGTON 3 SW                	TN	US	USC00402108
DICKSON                       	TN	US	USC00402489
DOVER 1 W                     	TN	US	USC00402589
JACKSON EXP STN               	TN	US	USC00404561
LEWISBURG EXP STN             	TN	US	USC00405187
MC MINNVILLE                  	TN	US	USC00405882
ROGERSVILLE 1 NE              	TN	US	USC00407884
TULLAHOMA                     	TN	US	USC00409155
WAYNESBORO                    	TN	US	USC00409502
ALPINE                        	TX	US	USC00410174
BEEVILLE 5 NE                 	TX	US	USC00410639
BOERNE                        	TX	US	USC00410902
CLARKSVILLE 2NE               	TX	US	USC00411772
DANEVANG 1 W                  	TX	US	USC00412266
FT STOCKTON                   	TX	US	USC00413280
GAINESVILLE 5 ENE             	TX	US	USC00413420
HALLETTSVILLE 2 N             	TX	US	USC00413873
LIBERTY                       	TX	US	USC00415196
MARSHALL                      	TX	US	USC00415618
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PLAINVIEW                     	TX	US	USC00417079
SEMINOLE                      	TX	US	USC00418201
STRATFORD                     	TX	US	USC00418692
ALTON                         	UT	US	USC00420086
BEAVER                        	UT	US	USC00420519
BLANDING                      	UT	US	USC00420738
BLUFF                         	UT	US	USC00420788
CORINNE                       	UT	US	USC00421731
DESERET                       	UT	US	USC00422101
DUCHESNE                      	UT	US	USC00422253
ELBERTA                       	UT	US	USC00422418
ESCALANTE                     	UT	US	USC00422592
FILLMORE                      	UT	US	USC00422828
HEBER                         	UT	US	USC00423809
HIAWATHA                      	UT	US	USC00423896
KANAB                         	UT	US	USC00424508
LAKETOWN                      	UT	US	USC00424856
LEVAN                         	UT	US	USC00425065
LOA                           	UT	US	USC00425148
MANTI                         	UT	US	USC00425402
MOAB                          	UT	US	USC00425733
MORGAN POWER & LIGHT          	UT	US	USC00425826
OGDEN PIONEER PH              	UT	US	USC00426404
PANGUITCH                     	UT	US	USC00426601
PAROWAN                       	UT	US	USC00426686
RIVERDALE                     	UT	US	USC00427318
ST GEORGE                     	UT	US	USC00427516
SCIPIO                        	UT	US	USC00427714
THOMPSON                      	UT	US	USC00428705
TOOELE                        	UT	US	USC00428771
VERNAL                        	UT	US	USC00429111
WOODRUFF                      	UT	US	USC00429595
ZION NP                       	UT	US	USC00429717
CAVENDISH                     	VT	US	USC00431243
CHELSEA                       	VT	US	USC00431360
CORNWALL                      	VT	US	USC00431580
ENOSBURG FALLS                	VT	US	USC00432769
SAINT JOHNSBURY               	VT	US	USC00437054
BLACKSBURG NWSO               	VA	US	USC00440766
BREMO BLUFF                   	VA	US	USC00440993
BURKES GARDEN                 	VA	US	USC00441209
DALE ENTERPRISE               	VA	US	USC00442208
DANVILLE                      	VA	US	USC00442245
FARMVILLE 2 N                 	VA	US	USC00442941
FREDERICKSBURG NP             	VA	US	USC00443192
HOPEWELL                      	VA	US	USC00444101
HOT SPRINGS                   	VA	US	USC00444128
LINCOLN                       	VA	US	USC00444909
PIEDMONT RSCH STN             	VA	US	USC00446712
WILLIAMSBURG 2 N              	VA	US	USC00449151
WOODSTOCK 2 NE                	VA	US	USC00449263
ABERDEEN                      	WA	US	USC00450008
BELLINGHAM 3 SSW              	WA	US	USC00450587
BUCKLEY 1 NE                  	WA	US	USC00450945
CENTRALIA                     	WA	US	USC00451276
CLE ELUM                      	WA	US	USC00451504
COLFAX                        	WA	US	USC00451586
COLVILLE 5 NE                 	WA	US	USC00451654
CONCONULLY                    	WA	US	USC00451666
DAVENPORT                     	WA	US	USC00452007
DAYTON 1 WSW                  	WA	US	USC00452030
ELLENSBURG                    	WA	US	USC00452505
EVERETT                       	WA	US	USC00452675
FORKS 1 E                     	WA	US	USC00452914
GOLDENDALE                    	WA	US	USC00453226
GRAPEVIEW 3 SW                	WA	US	USC00453284
KENNEWICK                     	WA	US	USC00454154
LONGVIEW                      	WA	US	USC00454769
NORTHPORT                     	WA	US	USC00455946
OLGA 2 SE                     	WA	US	USC00456096
PORT TOWNSEND                 	WA	US	USC00456678
PUYALLUP 2 W EXP STN          	WA	US	USC00456803
SEDRO-WOOLLEY                 	WA	US	USC00457507
SNOQUALMIE FALLS              	WA	US	USC00457773
STEHEKIN 4 NW                 	WA	US	USC00458059
VANCOUVER 4 NNE               	WA	US	USC00458773
WINTHROP 1 WSW                	WA	US	USC00459376
BUCKHANNON                    	WV	US	USC00461220
CAIRO                         	WV	US	USC00461330
GLENVILLE                     	WV	US	USC00463544
LEWISBURG 3 N                 	WV	US	USC00465224
MANNINGTON 8 WNW              	WV	US	USC00465626
WINFIELD LOCKS                	WV	US	USC00469683
ASHLAND EXP FARM              	WI	US	USC00470349
BOWLER                        	WI	US	USC00470991
BRODHEAD                      	WI	US	USC00471078
DARLINGTON                    	WI	US	USC00472001
FOND DU LAC                   	WI	US	USC00472839
HANCOCK EXP FARM              	WI	US	USC00473405
HATFIELD                      	WI	US	USC00473471
LANCASTER 4 WSW               	WI	US	USC00474546
MANITOWOC                     	WI	US	USC00475017
MARSHFIELD EXP FARM           	WI	US	USC00475120
MEDFORD                       	WI	US	USC00475255
MINOCQUA                      	WI	US	USC00475516
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OCONTO 4 W                    	WI	US	USC00476208
PORTAGE                       	WI	US	USC00476718
PRAIRIE DU CHIEN              	WI	US	USC00476827
RACINE                        	WI	US	USC00476922
SPOONER AG RES STN            	WI	US	USC00478027
STANLEY WWTP                  	WI	US	USC00478110
VIROQUA                       	WI	US	USC00478827
WATERTOWN                     	WI	US	USC00478919
ALTA 1 NNW                    	WY	US	USC00480140
BASIN                         	WY	US	USC00480540
BORDER 3 N                    	WY	US	USC00480915
BUFFALO BILL DAM              	WY	US	USC00481175
CHUGWATER                     	WY	US	USC00481730
COLONY                        	WY	US	USC00481905
DIVERSION DAM                 	WY	US	USC00482595
DUBOIS                        	WY	US	USC00482715
EVANSTON 1 E                  	WY	US	USC00483100
LAKE YELLOWSTONE              	WY	US	USC00485345
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MORAN 5WNW                    	WY	US	USC00486440
PATHFINDER DAM                	WY	US	USC00487105
PAVILLION                     	WY	US	USC00487115
PINE BLUFFS 5W                	WY	US	USC00487240
POWELL FLD STN                	WY	US	USC00487388
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SARATOGA                      	WY	US	USC00487990
TORRINGTON EXP FARM           	WY	US	USC00488995
WHEATLAND 4 N                 	WY	US	USC00489615
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19 Responses to The Completely Fake Time Of Observation Bias Adjustment

  1. Adamant de-Nye-er says:

    Excellent explanation. This truly exposes these guys as frauds.

  2. Bleakhouses says:

    One of my he most important analysis done here. Great job Tony.

  3. Stewart Pid says:

    The turd polisher Mosher is also a serial poster re the robustness of his turd polishing.

  4. MrZ says:

    Daily from the troll ;-) God I hope my data is right because this is bold!

    I think the “corrections” as yearly averages are very powerful. The below is for max temps.

    You can clearly see that they have adjustment masks for the stations. If I read Zeke H right he claimed some 0.3 degrees for TOB and some 0.5 for thermometer change. The the infills and spatial corrections are very minor. How can 0.3+0.5+ something small equal > 2 so often? Could it be station moves? In that case why do they always move from a warmer to a cooler place?

    I don’t think the conspiracy is data tampering any longer. Its who decided to move the stations, when and where? /Sarc

  5. angech says:

    I was wondering if the step ladder that AGW people show is actually showing when different adjustments were put into place?

  6. richard verney says:

    If one is making adjustments to the data in the region of some 1 degF then immediately one introduces an error bound of not less than 1 deg F in the resultant analysis.

    Whilst obviously the intention behind the adjustment to the data is to improve it, one runs the risk that the adjustment is not warranted, is in the wrong amount or even in the wrong direction.

    I wish that these climate guys would set out a realistic error bound to accompany any presentation of their analysis, or just simply use the raw data and then detail what defects they consider besets the raw data.

    What we have here is data and data analysis not fit for the scientific purpose to which it is being put, and any honest scientist would know that and would caution its use .

  7. ItsGettingHotinHereSo says:

    The following is from the study “Quality Control of 19th Century Weather Data” published by the Illinois State Water Survey – 2011

    Development of Standard Observation Practices

    Temperature was the most common data type observed in the early 1800s. However, significant changes in instrumentation and observation practices occurred during the nineteenth century (e.g., Chenoweth, 1993; Conner, 2008; Burnette et al., 2010). For example, temperature (and other data types) in the early and mid-1800s were observed several times a day, typically three times and occasionally up to six times daily at specified times. These are referred to as “at-hour” observations. Figure 4 shows a hand-drawn table of temperature, wind, and weather observations recorded by U.S. Army staff at Fort Armstrong in Rock Island, Illinois during July 1820. The maximum/minimum thermometer began to come into general use in the late 1870s, and daily maximum and minimum temperature observations were added to the at-hour observations. Over a 20- to 30-year period, individual stations replaced their at-hour temperature observations with 24-hour maximum and minimum temperature observations, with only a few COOP stations continuing at-hour observations after 1900.

    This supports Tony’s statement that the weather observers knew what they were doing in the 1800s and in the 1900s. In the past (early to mid-1800s) they observed the temperature several times a day. After years of utilizing the at-hour and the min/max temperature 24 hour observation time methods at the same time, it is unlikely they then only checked the min/max temperature once a day and documented erroneous readings.

  8. Kris Johanson says:

    Okay let me get this straight…. a guy working out of his extra bedroom on a shoestring budget and with software he developed in his spare time just exposed and demonstrated – QUANTITATIVELY – the EXACT MECHANISM by which the National Oceanic & Atmos. Administration is trying to deceive us – USING THEIR (NOAA’s) DATA. Where are the paid trolls on this post???!!!!

    • MrZ says:

      It’s actually not very difficult to demonstrate the biases in the data. It’s all there in public files for anybody to examine. Even without programming skills you could on an envelope double check my graph above. All you need is a pen, an envelope, 15minutes and three textual files from noaa:
      USH00051294.raw.tmax => T_MAX as read from station
      USH00051294.tob.tmax => T_MAX after TOB adjustments
      USH00051294.FLs.52j.tmax => T_MAX with additional adjustments including TOB

      Files are archived here:

      The difficulty is to explain why the bias… and how certain is a temperature increase of 2C?

  9. Ishtar says:

    Very nice, but I need a decoder ring for the station history file.

    • What is contained in each column? Which column is the time of observation?
    • Where can I find this file? I thought that it would be in HOMR, but I can’t find it.

    • MrZ says:

      Here you go
      2.2.1 DATA FORMAT

      Variable Columns Type
      ——– ——- —-

      ID 1-11 Integer
      YEAR 13-16 Integer
      VALUE1 17-22 Integer
      DMFLAG1 23-23 Character
      QCFLAG1 24-24 Character
      DSFLAG1 25-25 Character
      . . .
      . . .
      . . .
      VALUE12 116-121 Integer
      DMFLAG12 122-122 Character
      QCFLAG12 123-123 Character
      DSFLAG12 124-124 Character

      One value and flagset per month.
      More here

      • Ishtar says:

        I want to the actual clock time of the observation of the daily max/min thermometer reading (e.g., the min/max temperature was read at 1600 (4 pm) each day for October 1936)

        The files that you pointed me to appear to be the raw and “tob corrected” temperature values for each month/year.

        Am I missing something?

  10. Ishtar says:

    Here is one row from the dataset that Tony linked to above with the “station histories” tag:

    11084 11 1 1933 5 28 1934 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 31 4 87 3 0 0 85 30 S BREWTON (NEAR) 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 07SS 305 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 WILLIS B PEAVY 00

    What is in each column? Is one of them the actual time of the observation? Which one?

  11. barry says:

    This analysis completely misses the mark: quoting….

    “I identified which stations reset their thermometers during the afternoon in 1936, and which ones reset their thermometers in the morning in 1936.

    According to NOAA documents, there were 273 stations which reset their thermometers at morning or night during July 1936, and 861 stations which reset their thermometers in the afternoon. I plotted the trends for both groups of stations, and found that the trends were essentially identical.”

    TOBS is based on stations changing the time at which they reset thermometers. Your analysis preserves that bias in at least the group with the largest number of stations.

    Anthony Watts, who has a published paper on US min/max temps based on his work with, certainly thinks TOBS is necessary, and applied that correction to his own work (Fall et al 2011). Mosher and Jeff ID agree. If prominent skeptics who actually publish peer-reviewed work on the US temp data think it is necessary, how is this a “fake” adjustment?

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